A new study uses fMRI technology to distinguish the effects of MDMA (“Ecstasy”) and the classic psychedelic psilocybin on the networks within the brain. Researchers found that psilocybin produces unique changes in consciousness.
The effects of psilocybin and MDMA on between-network resting state functional connectivity in healthy volunteers
Leor Roseman, Robert Leech, Amanda Feilding, David J. Nutt, and Robin L. Carhart-Harris
“Perturbing a system and observing the consequences is a classic scientific strategy for understanding a phenomenon. Psychedelic drugs perturb consciousness in a marked and novel way and thus are powerful tools for studying its mechanisms. In the present analysis, we measured changes in resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) between a standard template of different independent components analysis (ICA)-derived resting state networks (RSNs) under the influence of two different psychoactive drugs, the stimulant/psychedelic hybrid, MDMA, and the classic psychedelic, psilocybin. Both were given in placebo-controlled designs and produced marked subjective effects, although reports of more profound changes in consciousness were given after psilocybin. Between-network RSFC was generally increased under psilocybin, implying that networks become less differentiated from each other in the psychedelic state. Decreased RSFC between visual and sensorimotor RSNs was also observed. MDMA had a notably less marked effect on between-network RSFC, implying that the extensive changes observed under psilocybin may be exclusive to classic psychedelic drugs and related to their especially profound effects on consciousness. The novel analytical approach applied here may be applied to other altered states of consciousness to improve our characterization of different conscious states and ultimately advance our understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying them.”
The Purdue University independent daily student newspaper, The Exponent, has a featured article about Heffter’s President and co-founder Dr. David Nichols.
by Reed Sellers
“A former Purdue professor is making major headway in a revolutionary method of treatment for psychiatric disorders by facilitating controlled psychedelic trips.
“Adjunct professor at the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill and former Purdue distinguished professor, David Nichols, has been conducting research on psychedelics since 1974, when he came to Purdue as an assistant professor. Nichols said he was interested in why, of all the life-changing events people experience, a drug can be one of them.
“’The thing that was interesting to me was how these things produce such profound effects on the brain,’ Nichols said. ‘You fall in love or you get married, have a child, maybe a parent or sibling dies – these kinds of things. Or you could take some LSD and your life may be permanently changed after that.’”
We’re saddened to note the passing of Dr. Alexander “Sasha” Shulgin, an important pioneer of psychedelic chemistry. In addition to a long and remarkably productive career as a chemist, Dr. Shulgin authored a number of influential books including two scientific autobiographies, PIHKAL: A Chemical Love Story (1991) and TIHKAL: The Continuation (1997), both co-written with his wife Ann Shulgin. An obituary with a detailed overview of Dr. Shulgin’s career is available on ShulginResearch.org.
“Psychedelics and empathogens were Sasha’s most passionate interest, as he wholeheartedly believed that these drugs could be exceptionally valuable tools for self-discovery when properly used. ‘I am forever in their debt,’ he said, ‘And I will forever be their champion.’”
Southern California Public Radio station KPCC has an excellent four-part series on the current state of psychedelic research. The series, reported by Health Care Correspondent Stephanie O’Neill, features interviews with Heffter board members George Greer, Charles Grob, and Stephen Ross.
“Research into the therapeutic potential of illegal ‘psychedelic’ drugs to treat an assortment of mainstream mental health conditions is undergoing a modern-day renaissance.
“A host of published studies in the field is showing promise for psychedelics, such as psilocybin — the active ingredient in ‘magic mushrooms’ — to help treat alcoholism, depression, drug addiction and severe anxiety caused by serious or terminal illness.”
A team at the Psychiatric University Hospital of Zurich, including Heffter board member Franz X. Vollenweider, found that psilocybin improves the mood of healthy individuals. According to the Zurich researchers, a moderate dose of psilocybin can lessen the effect of negative stimuli in the amygdala and other areas in the brain. The study could lead to new treatment options for people with depression.
This research is making news globally. International coverage appears on this Arabic site (scroll down the page) and this Thai site.
“Emotions like fear, anger, sadness, and joy enable people to adjust to their environment and react flexibly to stress and strain and are vital for cognitive processes, physiological reactions, and social behavior. The processing of emotions is closely linked to structures in the brain, i.e. to what is known as the limbic system. Within this system the amygdala plays a central role — above all it processes negative emotions like anxiety and fear. If the activity of the amygdala becomes unbalanced, depression and anxiety disorders may develop.”
A New York University research team is using hallucinogenic experiences to help patients come to terms with their mortality.
by Roc Morin
“Some of the things I’m about to say might not make sense,” began O.M., a 22-year-old cancer survivor. He had the far-off look in his eyes that I recognized from so many of the other study participants. They sound like travelers, struggling to describe exotic foreign lands to the people left back home. That struggle is a sign that the treatment has worked. Ineffability is one of the primary criteria that define a mystical experience.
“I was outside of my body, looking at myself,” O.M. continued, “My body was lying on a stretcher in front of a hospital. I felt an incredible anxiety—the same anxiety I had felt every day since my diagnosis. Then, like a switch went on, I went from being anxious to analyzing my anxiety from the outside. I realized that nothing was actually happening to me objectively. It was real because I let it become real. And, right when I had that thought, I saw a cloud of black smoke come out of my body and float away.”
Researchers are giving psychedelics to cancer patients to help alleviate their despair — and it’s working
by Linda Marsa
On a bone-chilling morning in February last year, Nick Fernandez bundled up and took the subway from his Manhattan apartment to the Bluestone Center for Clinical Research, which is located in an art deco-style building on the Lower East Side. A 27-year-old graduate student in psychology with dark, wavy hair and delicate, bird-like features, Fernandez was excited and nervous. He had eaten a light breakfast consisting of a bagel and industrial-strength coffee in preparation for another journey he was about to take. Fernandez had signed up to be a subject in a New York University study into the use of psilocybin, the psychoactive ingredient in hallucinogenic mushrooms, to relieve mental anguish in people with terminal or recurrent cancer.
This essay describes the founding of the Heffter Research Institute in 1993 and its development up to the present. The Institute is the only scientific research organization dedicated to scientific research into the medical value of psychedelics, and it has particularly focused on the use of psilocybin.
A pilot study of the value of psilocybin in treating alcoholism at the University of New Mexico also is nearing completion, with a larger two-site study being planned. Other studies underway involve the use of psilocybin in a smoking cessation program and a study of the effects of psilocybin in long-term meditators, both at JHU. The institute is now planning for a Phase 3 clinical trial of psilocybin to treat distress in end-stage cancer patients.
At the Psychedelic Science 2013 conference held in Oakland, CA in April 2013, Heffter founder Dave Nichols and Heffter Zurich researcher Franz Vollenweider presented this in-depth workshop focusing on the latest advances in scientific understanding of how psychedelic compounds affect the brain.
Dave starts the workshop with some very basic information about receptor pharmacology, then proceeds into how receptors produce signals within cells. His discussion moves on to more complex realms concerning how various psychedelics interact with receptors, including how molecular biology techniques have been used to map out the functional topography of receptors.
After a brief history of psychedelic research in Switzerland, Franz X. Vollenweider reviews the assessments, predictors and neuronal correlates of the basic psychological dimensions of psychedelics in humans, particularly the neuronal processes and networks underpinning the dissolution of self and visionary experiences. In the second part, he summarizes the effect of psychedelics on conscious and unconscious emotion processing and neuronal plasticity and discusses their impact for the treatment of depression and anxiety.
Although these presentations are fairly technical, there is plenty of information for the layperson. The workshop is available for viewing in four parts on YouTube:
• Studies of the molecular effects of psychedelics on gene expression in the brain, as well as their powerful anti-inflammatory properties (Dr. Charles Nichols at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans)
• Effects of psilocybin on behavior, psychology, and brain function in long-term meditators (Dr. Roland Griffiths at Johns Hopkins University)
• Qualitative interview study of patient experiences of psilocybin treatment and psycho-educational sessions (Dr. Stephen Ross and Dr. Alex Belser at New York University)
The Heffter Institute is a non-profit organization that was founded by a leading group of brain scientists, and remains the only neuroscience institute dedicated to supporting research with psychedelic substances in order to contribute to a greater understanding of the mind, improvement of the human condition, and the alleviation of suffering.
For more information, please contact: Cibele Ruas, email@example.com.