DAVID E. NICHOLS, PHD
GEORGE R. GREER, MD
MARK A. GEYER, PHD
ROLAND R. GRIFFITHS, PHD
CHARLES S. GROB, MD
DENNIS J. MCKENNA, PHD
STEPHEN ROSS, M.D.
FRANZ X. VOLLENWEIDER, MD
ROBERT J. BARNHART
ELIZABETH GORDON
WILLIAM A. LINTON
RICHARD M. WOLFE
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LYNETTE HERRING
Dave Nichols
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ROLAND R. GRIFFITHS, PH.D

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Board Member

Roland R. Griffiths, Ph.D., is Professor in the Departments of Psychiatry and Neurosciences at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. His principal research focus in both clinical and preclinical laboratories has been on the behavioral and subjective effects of mood-altering drugs. His research has been largely supported by grants from the National Institute on Health and he is author of over 300 journal articles and book chapters. He has been a consultant to the National Institutes of Health, and to numerous pharmaceutical companies in the development of new psychotropic drugs. He is also currently a member of the Expert Advisory Panel on Drug Dependence for the World Health Organization. He has an interest in meditation and is the lead investigator of the psilocybin research initiative at Johns Hopkins, which includes studies of psilocybin occasioned mystical experience in healthy volunteers and cancer patients, and a pilot study of psilocybin-facilitated smoking cessation. (Participation by Board Member does not constitute or imply endorsement by the Johns Hopkins University or the Johns Hopkins Hospital and Health System.)

Selected Publications

Griffiths, R.R., Sears, B., & Jennings, L. (1969). Specificity of transfer of a learned response by intracisternal injection of brain extract from trained rats: Negative findings. Psychological Reports, 25, 339-348.

Griffiths, R.R., & Thompson, T. (1973). The post-reinforcement pause: A misnomer. The Psychological Record, 23, 229-235.

Griffiths, R.R., & Thompson, T. (1973). Effects of chlorpromazine and pentobarbital on pattern and number of responses in extinction. Psychological Reports, 33, 323-334.

Pickens, R., Bigelow, G.E., & Griffiths, R.R. (1973). An experimental approach to treating chronic alcoholism: A case study and one-year follow-up. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 11, 321-325.

Bigelow, G.E., Liebson, I., & Griffiths, R.R. (1974). Alcoholic drinking: Suppression by a brief time-out procedure. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 12, 107-115.

Griffiths, R.R., & Thompson, T. (1974). Pentobarbital facilitated extinction: Effect of different schedules of drug withdrawal. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 2, 331-338.

Griffiths, R.R., Bigelow, G.E., & Liebson, I. (1974). Assessment of effects of ethanol self-administration on social interactions in alcoholics. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.), 38, 105-110.

Griffiths, R.R., Bigelow, G.E., & Liebson, I. (1974). Suppression of ethanol self-administration by contingent time-out from social interactions in alcoholics. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 12, 327-334.

Bigelow, G., & Griffiths, R.R. (1974). Staff's interactions with patients during behavior modification. Rehabilitation Psychology, 21, 71-77.

Bigelow, G., Griffiths, R.R., & Liebson, I. (1975). Experimental models for the modification of human drug self-administration as exemplified by alcoholism. Federation Proceedings, 34, 1785-1792.

Griffiths, R.R., Bigelow, G., & Liebson, I. (1975). Effect of ethanol self-administration on choice behavior: Money vs. socializing. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 3, 443-446.

Griffiths, R.R., Findley, J., Brady, J., Gutcher, Karen D., & Robinson, W. (1975). Comparison of progressive-ratio performance maintained by cocaine, methylphenidate and secobarbital. Psychopharmacologia, 43, 81-83.

Griffiths, R.R., Bigelow, G., & Liebson, I. (1976). Facilitation of human tobacco self-administration by ethanol: A behavioral analysis. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 25, 279-292.

Bigelow, G., Griffiths, R.R., & Liebson, I. (1976). Experimental human drug self-administration: Methodology and application to the study of sedative abuse. Pharmacological Reviews, 27, 523-53l.

Griffiths, K., & Griffiths, R.R. (1976). Errorless establishment of letter discriminations with a stimulus fading procedure in pre-school children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 42, 387-396.

Griffiths, R.R., Wurster, R.M., & Brady, J.V. (1976). Discrete-trial choice procedure: Effects of naloxone and methadone on choice between food and heroin. Pharmacological Reviews, 27, 357-365.

Griffiths, R.R., Bigelow, G., & Liebson, I. (1976). Human sedative self-administration: Effects of interingestion interval and dose. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 197, 488-494.

Bigelow, G., Strickler, D., Liebson, I., & Griffiths, R.R. (1976). Maintaining disulfiram ingestion among outpatient alcoholics: A security-deposit contingency contracting procedure. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 14, 378-381.

Bigelow, G., Griffiths, R.R., & Liebson, I. (1976). Effects of response requirement upon human sedative self-administration and drug-seeking behavior. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 5, 681-685.

Brady, J.V., & Griffiths, R.R. (1976). Behavioral procedures for evaluating the relative abuse potential of CNS drugs in primates. Federation Proceedings, 35, 2245-2253.

Griffiths, R.R., Winger, G., Brady, J.V., & Snell, J. (1976). Comparison of behavior maintained by infusions of eight phenylethylamines in baboons. Psychopharmacology, 50, 251-258.

Griffiths, R.R., Bigelow, G., & Liebson, I. (1977). Comparison of social time-out and activity time-out procedures in suppressing ethanol self-administration in alcoholics. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 15, 329-336.

Griffiths, R.R., Stitzer, M., Corker, K., Bigelow, G., & Liebson, I.(1977). Drug-produced changes in human social behavior: Facilitation by d-amphetamine. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 7, 365-372.

Wurster, R.M., Griffiths, R.R., Findley, J.D., & Brady, J.V. (1977). Reduction of heroin self-administration in baboons by manipulation of behavioral and pharmacological conditions. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 7, 519-528.

Griffiths, R.R., Brady, J.V., & Snell, J.D. (1978). Progressive-ratio performance maintained by drug infusions: Comparison of cocaine, diethylpropion, chlorphentermine and fenfluramine. Psychopharmacology, 56, 5-13.

Griffiths, R.R., Brady, J.V., & Snell, J.D. (1978). Relationship between anorectic and reinforcing properties of appetite suppressant drugs: Implications for assessment of abuse liability. Biological Psychiatry, 13, 283-290.

Stitzer, M.L., Griffiths, R.R., & Liebson, I. (1978). Effects of d-amphetamine on speaking in isolated humans. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 9, 57-63.

Griffiths, R.R., & Balster, R.L. (1979). Opioids: Similarity between evaluations of subjective effects and animal self-administration results. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 25, 611-617.

Griffiths, R.R., Bigelow, G., & Liebson, I. (1979). Human drug self-administration: Double-blind comparison of pentobarbital, diazepam, chlorpromazine and placebo. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 210, 301-310.

Wurster, R.M., & Griffiths, R.R. (1979). Human concurrent performances: Variation of reinforcer magnitude and rate of reinforcement. The Psychological Record, 29, 341-354.

Henningfield, J.E., & Griffiths, R.R. (1979). A preparation for the experimental analysis of human cigarette smoking behavior. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation, 11, 538-544.

Griffiths, R.R., Bradford, L.D., & Brady, J.V. (1979). Progressive ratio and fixed ratio schedules of cocaine-maintained responding in baboons. Psychopharmacology, 65, 125-136.

Griffiths, R.R. (1980). Common factors in human and infrahuman drug self-administration. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 16, 45-47.

Bradford, L.D., & Griffiths, R.R. (1980). Responding maintained by cocaine or d-amphetamine under fixed-interval schedules in baboons. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 5, 393-400.

Henningfield, J.E., Yingling, J., Griffiths, R.R., & Pickens, R. (1980). An inexpensive portable device for measuring puffing behavior by cigarette smokers. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 12, 811-813.

Henningfield, J.E., & Griffiths, R.R. (1980). Effects of ventilated cigarette holders on cigarette smoking by humans. Psychopharmacology, 68, 115-119.

Henningfield, J.E., Stitzer, M.L., & Griffiths, R.R. (1980). Expired air carbon monoxide accumulation and elimination as a function of number of cigarettes smoked. Addictive Behaviors, 5, 265-272.

Bigelow, G.E., Griffiths, R.R., Liebson, I., & Kaliszak, J.E. (1980). Double-blind evaluation of reinforcing and anorectic actions of weight control medications. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 1118-1123.

Griffiths, R.R., Bigelow, G.E., Liebson, I., & Kaliszak, J.E. (1980). Drug preference in humans: Double-blind choice comparison of pentobarbital, diazepam and placebo. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 215, 649-661.

Stitzer, M.L., Griffiths, R.R., Bigelow, G.E., & Liebson, I. (1981). Human social conversation: Effects of ethanol, secobarbital and chlorpromazine. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 14, 353-360.

Griffiths, R.R., Wurster, R.M., & Brady, J.V. (1981). Choice between food and heroin: Effects of morphine, naloxone, and secobarbital. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 35, 335-351.

Henningfield, J.E., Ator, N.A., & Griffiths, R.R. (1981). Establishment and maintenance of oral ethanol self-administration in the baboon. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 7, 113-124.

Bigelow, G.E., Stitzer, M.L., Griffiths, R.R., & Liebson, I.A. (1981). Contingency management approaches to drug self-administration and drug abuse: Efficacy and limitations. Addictive Behaviors, 6, 241-252.

Griffiths, R.R., & Bigelow, G.E. (1981). Human self-administration of sedative and stimulant drugs. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 17, 138-140.

Griffiths, R.R., Lukas, S.E., Bradford, L.D., Brady, J.V., & Snell, J.D. (1981). Self-injection of barbiturates and benzodiazepines in baboons. Psychopharmacology, 75, 101-109.

Henningfield, J.E., & Griffiths, R.R. (1981). Cigarette smoking and subjective response: Effects of d-amphetamine. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 30, 497-505.

Stitzer, M.L., Griffiths, R.R., McLellan, A.T., Grabowski, J., & Hawthorne, J.W. (1981). Diazepam use among methadone maintenance patients: Patterns and dosages. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 8, 189-199.

Griffiths, R.R., & Henningfield, J.E. (1982). Experimental analysis of human cigarette smoking behavior. Federation Proceedings, 41, 234-240.

Griffiths, R.R., Henningfield, J.E., & Bigelow, G.E. (1982). Human cigarette smoking: Manipulation of number of puffs per bout, interbout interval, and nicotine dose. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 220, 256-265.

Griffiths, R.R., & Henningfield, J.E. (1982). Pharmacology of cigarette smoking behavior. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 3, 260-263.

Chait, L.D., & Griffiths, R.R. (1982). Differential control of puff duration and interpuff interval in cigarette smokers. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 17, 155-158.

Chait, L.D., & Griffiths, R.R. (1982). Smoking behavior and tobacco smoke intake: Response of smokers to shortened cigarettes. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 32, 90-97.

Lukas, S.E., & Griffiths, R.R. (1982). Precipitated withdrawal by a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist (Ro 15-1788) after 7 days of diazepam. Science, 217, 1161-1163.

McLeod, D.R., Griffiths, R.R., Bigelow, G.E., & Yingling, J. (1982). An automated version of the digit symbol substitution test (DSST). Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation, 14, 463-466.

Lukas, S.E., Griffiths, R.R., Bradford, L.D., Brady, J.V., Daley, A., & Delorenzo, R. (1982). A tethering system for intravenous and intragastric drug administration in the baboon. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 17, 823-829.

McLeod, D.R., & Griffiths, R.R. (1983). Human progressive-ratio performance: Maintenance by pentobarbital. Psychopharmacology, 79, 4-9.

Ator, N.A., & Griffiths, R.R. (1983). Oral self-administration of methohexital in baboons. Psychopharmacology, 79, 120-125.

Griffiths, R.R., Bigelow, G.E., & Liebson, I. (1983). Differential effects of diazepam and pentobarbital on mood and behavior. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40, 865-873.

Henningfield, J.E., Chait, L.D., & Griffiths, R.R. (1983). Cigarette smoking and subjective response in alcoholics: Effects of pentobarbital. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 33, 806-812.

Ator, N.A., & Griffiths, R.R. (1983). Lorazepam and pentobarbital drug discrimination in baboons: Cross-drug generalization and interaction with Ro 15-1788. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 226, 776-782.

Ator, N.A., & Griffiths, R.R. (1983). Nicotine self-administration in baboons. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 19, 993-1003.

Chait, L.D., & Griffiths, R.R. (1983). Effects of caffeine on cigarette smoking behavior and subjective response. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 34, 612-622.

Henningfield, J.E., Chait, L.D., & Griffiths, R.R. (1984). Effects of ethanol on cigarette smoking by volunteers without histories of alcoholism. Psychopharmacology, 82, 1-5.

Griffiths, R.R., McLeod, D.R., Bigelow, G.E., Liebson, I.A., Roache, J.D., & Nowowieski, P. (1984). Comparison of diazepam and oxazepam: preference, liking, and extent of abuse. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 229, 501-508.

Lukas, S.E., & Griffiths, R.R. (1984). Precipitated diazepam withdrawal in baboons: Effects of dose and duration of diazepam exposure. European Journal of Pharmacology, 100, 163-171.

Chait, L.D., & Griffiths, R.R. (1984). Effects of methadone on human cigarette smoking and subjective ratings. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 229, 636-640.

Griffiths, R.R. (1984). Abuse liability of anxiolytic and sedative drugs. Clinical Neuropharmacology, 7, 248-249.

Nemeth-Coslett, R., & Griffiths, R.R. (1984). Determinants of puff duration in cigarette smokers I. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 20, 957-971.

Griffiths, R.R., McLeod, D.R., Bigelow, G.E., Liebson, I.A., & Roache, J.D. (1984). Relative abuse liability of diazepam and oxazepam: Behavioral and subjective dose effects. Psychopharmacology, 84, 147-154.

Lukas, S.E., Griffiths, R.R., Brady, J.V., & Wurster, R.M. (1984). Phencyclidine-analogue self-injection by the baboon. Psychopharmacology, 83, 316-320.

Preston, K.L., Griffiths, R.R., Stitzer, M.L., Bigelow, G.E., & Liebson, I.A. (1984). Diazepam and methadone interactions in methadone maintenance. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 36, 534-541.

Lamb, R.J., & Griffiths, R.R. (1984). Precipitated and spontaneous withdrawal in baboons after chronic dosing with lorazepam and CGS 9896. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 14, 11-17.

Nemeth-Coslett, R., & Griffiths, R.R. (1984). Determinants of puff duration in cigarette smokers II. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 21, 903-912.

Griffiths, R.R., Lamb, R.J., Ator, N.A., Roache, J.D., & Brady, J.V. (1985). Relative abuse liability of triazolam: Experimental assessment in animals and humans. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 9, 133-151.

Ator, N.A., & Griffiths, R.R. (1985). Lorazepam and pentobarbital discrimination: Interactions with CGS 8216 and caffeine. European Journal of Pharmacology, 107, 169-181.

Lamb, R.J., & Griffiths, R.R. (1985). Effects of repeated Ro 15-1788 administration in benzodiazepine-dependent baboons. European Journal of Pharmacology, 110, 257-261.

Nemeth-Coslett, R., & Griffiths, R.R. (1985). Effects of cigarette rod length on puff volume and carbon monoxide delivery in cigarette smokers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 15, 1-13.

Roache, J.D., & Griffiths, R.R. (1985). Comparison of triazolam and pentobarbital: Performance impairment, subjective effects, and abuse liability. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 234, 120-133.

Chait, L.D., Russ, N.W., & Griffiths, R.R. (1985). Effects of graded smoke inhalation on subsequent cigarette smoking behavior. Addictive Behaviors, 10, 273-280.

Griffiths, R.R., Bigelow, G.E., Liebson, I.A., O'Keeffe, M., O'Leary, D., & Russ, N. (1986). Human coffee drinking: Manipulation of concentration and caffeine dose. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 45, 133-148.

Nemeth-Coslett, R., Henningfield, J.E., O'Keeffe, M.K., & Griffiths, R.R. (1986). Effects of mecamylamine on human cigarette smoking and subjective ratings. Psychopharmacology, 88, 420-425.

Bergman, U., & Griffiths, R.R. (1986). Relative abuse of diazepam and oxazepam: Prescription forgeries and theft/loss reports in Sweden. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 16, 293-301.

Ator, N.A., & Griffiths, R.R. (1986). Discriminative stimulus effects of atypical anxiolytics in baboons and rats. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 237, 393-403.

Roache, J.D., & Griffiths, R.R. (1986). Repeated administration of diazepam and triazolam to subjects with histories of drug abuse. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 17, 15-29.

Nemeth-Coslett, R., & Griffiths, R.R. (1986). Naloxone does not affect cigarette smoking. Psychopharmacology, 89, 261-264.

Lukas, S.E., Brady, J.V., & Griffiths, R.R. (1986). Comparison of opioid self-injection and disruption of schedule-controlled performance in the baboon. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 238, 924-931.

Griffiths, R.R., Bigelow, G.E., & Liebson, I.A. (1986). Human coffee drinking: Reinforcing and physical dependence producing effects of caffeine. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 239, 416-425.

Preston, K.L., Griffiths, R.R., Cone, E.J., Darwin, W.D., & Gorodetzky, C.W. (1986). Diazepam and methadone blood levels following concurrent administration of diazepam and methadone. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 18, 195-202.

Nemeth-Coslett, R., Henningfield, J.E., O'Keeffe, M.K. & Griffiths, R.R. (1986) Effects of marijuana smoking on subjective ratings and tobacco smoking. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 25, 659-665.

Lamb, R.J., & Griffiths, R.R. (1987). Self-injection of d, l-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in the baboon. Psychopharmacology, 91, 268-272.

Zacny, J.P., Stitzer, M.L., Brown, F.J., Yingling, F.E., & Griffiths, R.R. (1987). Human cigarette smoking: Effects of puff and inhalation parameters on smoke exposure. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 240, 554-564.

Roache, J.D., & Griffiths, R.R. (1987). Interactions of diazepam and caffeine: Behavioral and subjective dose effects in humans. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 26, 801-812.

Ator, N.A., & Griffiths, R.R. (1987). Self-administration of barbiturates and benzodiazepines: A review. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 27, 391-398.

Lamb, R.J., Sannerud, C.A., & Griffiths, R.R. (1987). An examination of the intravenous self-administration of phenylpropanolamine using a cocaine substitution procedure in the baboon. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 28, 389-392.

Nemeth-Coslett, R., Henningfield, J.E., O'Keeffe, M.K., & Griffiths, R.R. (1987). Nicotine gum: Dose-related effects on cigarette smoking and subjective ratings. Psychopharmacology, 92, 424-430.

Liebson, I., Bigelow, G., Griffiths, R.R., & Funderburk, F.R. (1987). Phenylpropanolamine: Effects on subjective and cardiovascular variables at recommended over-the-counter dose levels. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 27, 685-693.

Lamb, R.J., & Griffiths, R.R. (1987). Effects of Ro 15-1788 and CGS 8216 in diazepam-dependent baboons. European Journal of Pharmacology, 143, 205-212.

Roache, J.D., & Griffiths, R.R. (1987). Lorazepam and meprobamate dose effects in humans: Behavioral effects and abuse liability. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 243, 978-988.

Griffiths, R.R., & Woodson, P.P. (1988). Reinforcing properties of caffeine: Studies in humans and laboratory animals. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 29, 419-427.

Griffiths, R.R., & Woodson, P.P. (1988). Caffeine physical dependence: A review of human and laboratory animal studies. Psychopharmacology, 94, 437-451.

Griffiths, R.R., & Woodson, P.P. (1988). Reinforcing effects of caffeine in humans. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 246, 21-29.

Sannerud, C.A., & Griffiths, R.R. (1988). Amantadine: Evaluation of reinforcing properties and effect on cocaine self-injection in baboons. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 21, 195-202.

Funderburk, F.R., Griffiths, R.R., McLeod, D.R., Bigelow, G.E., Mackenzie, A., Liebson, I.A., & Nemeth-Coslett, R. (1988). Relative abuse liability of lorazepam and diazepam: an evaluation in 'recreational' drug users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 22, 215-222.

Funderburk, F.R., Bigelow, G.E., Liebson, I.A., Mackenzie, A., McLeod, D.R., Nemeth-Coslett, R., & Griffiths, R.R. (1989). Behavioral differentiation of anxiolytic medications: alone and in combination with alcohol. Current Therapeutic Research, 45, 21-32.

Preston, K.L., Guarino, J.J., Kirk, W.T., & Griffiths, R.R. (1989). Evaluation of the abuse potential of methocarbamol. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 248, 1146-1157.

Ator, N.A., Cook, J.M., & Griffiths, R.R. (1989). Drug discrimination in pentylenetetrazol-trained baboons: Generalization to buspirone and ß-carboline-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester but not lorazepam or pentobarbital. Drug Development Research, 16, 257-267.

Ator, N.A., & Griffiths, R.R. (1989). Asymmetrical cross-generalization in drug discrimination with lorazepam and pentobarbital training conditions. Drug Development Research, 16, 355-364.

Ator, N.A., & Griffiths, R.R. (1989). Differential generalization to pentobarbital in rats trained to discriminate lorazepam, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, and triazolam. Psychopharmacology, 98, 20-30.

Bickel, W.K., Higgins, S.T., & Griffiths, R.R. (1989). Repeated diazepam administration: Effects on the acquisition and performance of response chains in humans. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 52, 47-56.

Griffiths, R.R., Bigelow, G.E., & Liebson, I.A. (1989). Reinforcing effects of caffeine in coffee and capsules. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 52, 127-140.

Sannerud, C.A., Cook, J.M., & Griffiths, R.R. (1989). Behavioral differentiation of benzodiazepine ligands after repeated administration in baboons. European Journal of Pharmacology, 167, 333-343.

Roache, J.D., & Griffiths, R.R. (1989). Diazepam and triazolam self-administration in sedative abusers: concordance of subject ratings, performance and drug self-administration. Psychopharmacology, 99, 309-315.

Griffiths, R.R., Evans, S.M., Heishman, S.J., Preston, K.L., Sannerud, C.A., Wolf, B., & Woodson, P.P. (1990). Low-dose caffeine discrimination in humans. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 252, 970-978.

Kirk, T., Roache, J.D., & Griffiths, R.R. (1990). Dose-response evaluation of the amnestic effects of triazolam and pentobarbital in normal subjects. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology,.10, 160-167.

Griffiths, R.R., & Wolf, B. (1990). Relative abuse liability of different benzodiazepines in drug abusers. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 10, 237-243.

Lamb, R.J., & Griffiths, R.R. (1990). Self-administration in baboons and the discriminative stimulus effects in rats of bupropion, nomifensine, diclofensine and imipramine. Psychopharmacology, 102, 183-190.

Mansbach, R.S., Sannerud, C.A., Griffiths, R.R., Balster, R.L., & Harris, L.S. (1990). Intravenous self-administration of 4-methylaminorex in primates. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 26, 137-144.

Griffiths, R.R., Evans, S.M., Heishman, S.J., Preston, K.L., Sannerud, C.A., Wolf, B., & Woodson, P.P. (1990). Low-dose caffeine physical dependence in humans. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 255, 1123-1132.

Evans, S.M., Funderburk, F.R., & Griffiths, R.R. (1990). Zolpidem and triazolam in humans: Behavioral and subjective effects and abuse liability. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 255, 1246-1255.

Griffiths, R.R., Lamb, R.J., Sannerud, C.A., Ator, N.A., & Brady, J.V. (1991). Self-injection of barbiturates, benzodiazepines and other sedative-anxiolytics in baboons. Psychopharmacology, 103, 154-161.

de Wit, H., & Griffiths, R.R. (1991). Testing the abuse liability of anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs in humans. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 28, 83-111.

Sannerud, C.A., Ator, N.A., & Griffiths, R.R. (1991). Methocarbamol: evaluation of reinforcing and discriminative stimulus effects. Behavioural Pharmacology, 2, 143-150.

Sannerud, C.A., Ator, N.A., & Griffiths, R.R. (1991). Comparison of the discriminative stimulus effects of midazolam after intracerebroventricular and peripheral administration in the rat. Life Sciences, 49, 261-268.

Sannerud, C.A., Allen, M., Cook, J.M. & Griffiths, R.R. (1991). Behavioral effects of benzodiazepine ligands in non-dependent, diazepam dependent and diazepam-withdrawn baboons European Journal of Pharmacology, 202,159-169.

Evans, S.M., & Griffiths, R.R. (1991). Dose-related caffeine discrimination in normal volunteers: individual differences in subjective effects and self-reported cues. Behavioural Pharmacology, 2, 345-356.

Evans, S.M., Critchfield, T.S., & Griffiths, R.R. (1991). Abuse liability assessment of anxiolytics/hypnotics: rationale and laboratory lore. British Journal of Addiction, 86, 1625-1632.

Camí, J., Bigelow, G.E., Griffiths, R.R., & Drummond (Eds.)(1991) Special issue: Clinical testing of drug abuse liability. British Journal of Addiction, 86, Number 12.

Wolf, B., & Griffiths, R.R. (1991). Physical dependence on benzodiazepines: Differences within the class. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 29, 153-156.

Silverman, K., & Griffiths, R.R. (1992). Low-dose caffeine discrimination and self-reported mood effects in normal volunteers. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 57, 91-107.

Griffiths, R.R., Sannerud, C.A., Ator, N.A., & Brady, J.V. (1992). Zolpidem behavioral pharmacology in baboons: Self-injection, discrimination, tolerance and withdrawal. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 260, 1199-1208.

Woodson, P.P., & Griffiths, R.R. (1992). Control of cigarette smoking topography: smoke filtration and draw resistance. Behavioural Pharmacology, 3, 99-111.

Evans, S.M., & Griffiths, R.R. (1992). Caffeine tolerance and choice in humans. Psychopharmacology, 108, 51-59.

Preston, K.L., Wolf, B., Guarino, J.J., & Griffiths, R.R. (1992). Subjective and behavioral effects of diphenhydramine, lorazepam, and methocarbamol: Evaluation of abuse liability. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 262, 707-720.

Ator, N.A., & Griffiths, R.R. (1992). Oral self-administration of triazolam, diazepam and ethanol in the baboon: drug reinforcement and benzodiazepine physical dependence. Psychopharmacology, 108, 301-312.

Silverman, K., Evans, S.M., Strain, E.C., & Griffiths, R.R. (1992). Withdrawal syndrome after the double-blind cessation of caffeine consumption. The New England Journal of Medicine, 327, 1109-1114.

Silverman, K., Evans, S. M., Strain, E. C., et Griffiths, R. R. (1992). Syndrome de sevrage après arrêt en double-aveugle de la consommation de caféine. Le Journal International de Medécine, 252, 26-32. (Reprinted from NEJM, 327, 1109-1114)

Sannerud, C.A., Ator, N.A., & Griffiths, R.R. (1992). Behavioral pharmacology of abecarnil in baboons: self-injection, drug discrimination and physical dependence. Behavioural Pharmacology, 3, 507-516.

Ator, N.A., & Griffiths, R.R. (1993). Differential sensitivity to midazolam discriminative-stimulus effects following self-administered verses response-independent midazolam. Psychopharmacology, 110, 1-4.

Griffiths, R.R., Troisi II, J.R., Silverman, K., & Mumford, G.K. (1993). Multiple-choice procedure: an efficient approach for investigating drug reinforcement in humans. Behavioural Pharmacology, 4, 3-13.

Sannerud, C.A., & Griffiths, R.R. (1993). Tolerance to the discriminative stimulus effects of midazolam: evidence for environmental modification and dose fading. Behavioural Pharmacology, 4, 125-133.

Troisi II, J.R., Critchfield, T.S., & Griffiths, R.R. (1993). Buspirone and lorazepam abuse liability in humans: behavioral effects, subjective effects and choice. Behavioural Pharmacology, 4, 217-230.

Sannerud, C.A., Ator, N.A., & Griffiths, R.R. (1993). Behavioral pharmacology of tandospirone in baboons: chronic administration and withdrawal, self-injection, and drug discrimination. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 32, 195-208.

Iguchi, M.Y., Handelsman, L., Bickel, W.K., & Griffiths, R.R. (1993). Benzodiazepine and sedative use/abuse by methadone maintenance clients. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 32, 257-266.

Funderburk, F.R., Mackenzie, A., Felch, L., Bigelow, G.E., Liebson, I.A., & Griffiths, R.R. (1993). Behavioral evaluation of drugs: a comparison of the behavioral effects of adinazolam and lorazepam. Journal of Clinical Research and Drug Development, 7, 65-75.

Lamb, R.J., & Griffiths, R.R. (1993). Behavioral effects of pentobarbital, lorazepam, ethanol and chlorpromazine substitution in pentobarbital-dependent baboons. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 265, 47-52.

Griffiths, R.R., Evans, S.M., Guarino, J.J., Roache, J.D., Furman, W.R., Liebson, I., & Schwam, E.M. (1993). Intravenous flumazenil following acute and repeated exposure to lorazepam in healthy voluteers: antagonism and precipitated withdrawal. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 265, 1163-1174.

Ator, N.A., Grant, K.A., Purdy, R.H., Paul, S.M., & Griffiths, R.R. (1993). Drug discrimination analysis of endogenous neuroactive steroids in rats. European Journal of Pharmacology, 241, 237-243.

Sellers, E.M., Ciraulo, D.A., DuPont, R.L., Griffiths, R.R., Kosten, T.R., Romach, M.K., & Woody, G.E. (1993). Alprazolam and benzodiazepine dependence. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 54 (suppl), 64-75.

Kaminski, B.J., & Griffiths, R.R. (1994). Intravenous self-injection of methcathinone in the baboon. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 47, 981-983.

Silverman, K., Mumford, G.K., & Griffiths, R.R. (1994). A procedure for studying the within-session onset of human drug discrimination. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 61, 181-189.

Silverman, K., Kirby, K.C., & Griffiths, R.R. (1994). Modulation of drug reinforcement by behavioral requirements following drug ingestion. Psychopharmacology, 114, 243-247.

Ator, N.A., Cook, J.M., Allen, M.S., & Griffiths, R.R. (1994). Discriminative-stimulus effects of azaspirodecanedione anxiolytics in baboons trained to discriminate ß-carboline-3-carboxlylic acid ethyl ester or pentylenetetrazole. Behavioural Pharmacology, 5, 176-188.

Silverman, K., Mumford, G.K., & Griffiths, R.R. (1994). Enhancing caffeine reinforcement by behavioral requirements following drug ingestion. Psychopharmacology, 114, 424-432.

Evans, S.M., Critchfield, T.S., & Griffiths, R.R. (1994). Caffeine reinforcement demonstrated in a majority of moderate caffeine users. Behavioural Pharmacology, 5, 231-238.

Mumford, G.K., Evans, S.M., Kaminski, B.J., Preston, K.L., Sannerud, C.A., Silverman, K., & Griffiths, R.R. (1994). Discriminative stimulus and subjective effects of theobromine and caffeine in humans. Psychopharmacology, 115, 1-8.

Strain, E.C., Mumford, G.K., Silverman, K., & Griffiths, R.R. (1994). Caffeine dependence syndrome: evidence from case histories and experimental evaluations. Journal of the American Medical Association, 272 (13), 1043-1048.

Evans, S.M., Troisi, J.R., & Griffiths, R.R. (1994). Tandospirone and alprazolam: comparison of behavioral effects and abuse liability in humans. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 271, 683-694.

Mumford, G.K., Rush, C.R., & Griffiths, R.R. (1995). Alprazolam and DN-2327 (Pazinaclone) in humans: Psychomotor, memory, subjective and reinforcing effects. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 3, 39-48.

Mumford, G.K., Rush, C.R., & Griffiths, R.R. (1995). Abecarnil and alprazolam in humans: Behavioral, subjective and reinforcing effects. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 272, 570-580.

Mumford, G.K., Evans, S.M., Fleishaker, J.C., & Griffiths, R.R. (1995). Alprazolam absorption kinetics affects abuse liability. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 57, 356-365.

Rush, C.R., Sullivan, J.T., & Griffiths, R.R. (1995). Intravenous caffeine in stimulant drug abusers: subjective reports and physiological effects. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 273, 351-358.

Rush, C.R., Critchfield, T.S., Troisi II, J.R., & Griffiths, R.R. (1995). Discriminative stimulus effects of diazepam and buspirone in normal volunteers. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 63, 277-294.

Strain, E.C., Mumford, G.K., Silverman, K., & Griffiths, R.R. (1995). Caffeine dependence syndrome. (Letter) Journal of the American Medical Association, 273, 1418-1419.

Griffiths, R.R. (1995). Benzodiazepines: long-term use among patients is a concern and abuse among polydrug abusers is not trivial. Psychopharmacology, 118, 116-117.

Sannerud, C.A., Kaminski, B.J., & Griffiths, R.R. (1995). Maintenance of H1 antagonists self-injection in baboons. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 3, 26-32.

Strain, E.C., & Griffiths, R.R. (1995). Caffeine dependence: Fact or fiction? (Commentary) Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 88, 437-440.

Kidorf, M., Stitzer, M.L., & Griffiths, R.R. (1995). Evaluating the reinforcement value of clinic-based privileges through a multiple choice procedure. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 39, 167-172.

Evans, S.M., Griffiths, R.R., & deWit, H. (1996). Preference for diazepam, but not buspirone, in moderate drinkers. Psychopharmacology, 123, 154-163.

Griffiths, R.R., Rush, C.R., & Puhala, K.A. (1996). Validation of the multiple-choice procedure for investigating drug reinforcement in humans. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 4, 97-106.

Strain, E.C., & Griffiths, R.R. (1996). Caffeine dependence: Fact or fiction? Woman’s Health Digest, 2, 15-17. (Reprinted from J R Soc Med, 88, 437-440)

Rush, C.R., & Griffiths, R.R. (1996). Zolpidem, triazolam, and temazepam: behavioral and subject-rated effects in normal volunteers. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 16, 146-157.

Kaminski, B.J., Sannerud, C.A., & Griffiths, R.R. (1996). Intravenous self-injection of psychomotor stimulant-anorectics in the baboon. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 4, 141-150.

Abreu, M.E., & Griffiths, R.R. (1996). Drug tasting may confound human drug discrimination studies. Psychopharmacology, 125, 255-257.

Sannerud, C.A., Kaminski, B. J., & Griffiths, R.R. (1996). Intravenous self-injection of four novel phenethylamines in baboons. Behavioural Pharmacology, 7, 315-323.

Eissenberg, T., Griffiths, R.R., & Stitzer, M.L. (1996). Mecamylamine does not precipitate withdrawal in cigarette smokers. Psychopharmacology, 127, 328-336.

Mumford, G.K., Silverman, K., & Griffiths, R.R. (1996). Reinforcing, subjective and performance effects of lorazepam and diphenhydramine in humans. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 4, 421-430.

Mumford, G.K., Benowitz, N.L., Evans, S.M., Kaminski, B.J., Preston, K.L., Sannerud, C.A., Silverman, K., & Griffiths, R.R. (1996). Absorption rate of methylxanthines following capsules, cola and chocolate. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 51, 319-325.

Rush, C.R., & Griffiths, R.R. (1997). Acute participant-rated and behavioral effects of alprazolam and buspirone, alone and in combination with ethanol, in normal volunteers. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 5, 28-38.

Eissenberg, T., & Griffiths, R.R. (1997). Human drug discrimination and multiple chemical sensitivity: caffeine exposure as an experimental model. Environmental Health Perspectives, 105 (Suppl. 2), 509-513.

Schuh, K.J., & Griffiths, R.R. (1997). Caffeine reinforcement: the role of withdrawal. Psychopharmacology, 130, 320-326.

Garrett, B.E., & Griffiths, R.R. (1997). The role of dopamine in the behavioral effects of caffeine in animals and humans. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 57, 533-541.

Mintzer, M.Z., Guarino, J., Kirk, T., Roache, J.D., & Griffiths, R.R. (1997). Ethanol and pentobarbital: comparison of behavioral and subjective effects in sedative drug abusers. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 5, 203-215.

Griffiths, R.R., & Weerts, E.M. (1997). Benzodiazepine self-administration in humans and laboratory animals -- implications for problems of long-term use and abuse. Psychopharmacology, 134, 1-37.

Ator, N.A., & Griffiths, R.R. (1997). Selectivity in the generalization profile in baboons trained to discriminate lorazepam: benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and other sedative/anxiolytics. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 282, 1442-1457.

Mintzer, M.Z., Frey, J.M., Yingling, J.E., & Griffiths, R.R. (1997). Triazolam and zolpidem: a comparison of their psychomotor, cognitive, and subjective effects in healthy volunteers. Behavioural Pharmacology, 8, 561-574.

Weerts, E.M., Kaminski, B.J. & Griffiths, R.R. (1998). Stable low-rate midazolam self-injection with concurrent physical dependence under conditions of long-term continuous availability in baboons. Psychopharmacology, 135, 70-81.

Weerts, E.M., Ator, N.A., Grech, D.M., & Griffiths, R.R. (1998). Zolpidem physical dependence assessed across increasing doses under a once-daily dosing regimen in baboons. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 285, 41-53.

Weerts, E.M., & Griffiths, R.R. (1998). Zolpidem self-injection with concurrent physical dependence under conditions of long-term continuous availability in baboons. Behavioural Pharmacology, 9, 285-297.

Frey, J.M., Mintzer, M.Z., Rush, C.R., & Griffiths, R.R. (1998). Buspirone is differentiated from diazepam in humans using a three-response drug discrimination procedure. Psychopharmacology, 138, 16-26.

Garrett, B.E., & Griffiths, R.R. (1998). Physical dependence increases the relative reinforcing effects of caffeine verses placebo. Psychopharmacology, 139, 195-202.

Mintzer, M.Z., Frey, J.M. & Griffiths, R.R. (1998). Zolpidem is differentiated from triazolam in humans using a three-response drug discrimination procedure. Behavioural Pharmacology, 9, 545-559.

Mintzer, M.Z., & Griffiths, R.R. (1998). Flunitrazepam and triazolam: a comparison of behavioral effects and abuse liability. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 53, 49-66.

Jones, H.E., Garrett, B.E., & Griffiths, R.R. (1999). Subjective and physiological effects of intravenous nicotine and cocaine in cigarette smoking cocaine abusers. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 288, 188-197.

Weerts, E.M., & Griffiths, R.R. (1999). Evaluation of the intravenous reinforcing effects of clonidine in baboons. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 53, 207-214.

Evans, S.E., & Griffiths, R.R. (1999). Caffeine withdrawal: a parametric analysis of caffeine dosing conditions. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 289, 285-294.

Mintzer, M.Z., & Griffiths, R.R. (1999). Selective effects of zolpidem on human memory functions. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 13, 18-31.

Ator, N.A.and Griffiths, R.R. (1999). Drug discrimination analysis of partial agonists at the benzodiazepine site. I. Differential effects of U-78875 across training conditions in baboons and rats. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 289, 1434-1446.

Mintzer, M.Z., & Griffiths, R.R. (1999). Triazolam and zolpidem: effects on human memory and attentional processes. Psychopharmacology, 144, 8-19.

Weerts, E.M., & Griffiths, R.R. (1999). Evaluation of limited and unlimited food intake during withdrawal in triazolam-dependent baboons. Behavioural Pharmacology, 10, 415-421.

Rush, C.R., Frey, J.M., & Griffiths, R.R. (1999). Zaleplon and triazolam in humans: acute behavioral effects and abuse potential. Psychopharmacology, 145, 39-51.

Weerts, E.M., Ator, N.A., & Griffiths, R.R. (1999) Comparison of the reinforcing effects of propofol and methohexital in baboons. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 57, 51-60

Mintzer, M.Z., Stoller, K.B., & Griffiths, R.R. (1999). A controlled study of flumazenil-precipitated withdrawal in chronic low-dose benzodiazepine users. Psychopharmacology, 147, 200-209.

Jones, H.E., Herning, R.I., Cadet, J.L., & Griffiths, R.R. (2000). Caffeine withdrawal increases cerebral blood flow velocity and alters quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) activity. Psychopharmacology, 147, 371-377.

Griffiths, R.R., & Vernotica, E.M. (2000). Is caffeine a flavoring agent in cola soft drinks? Archives of Family Medicine, 9, 727-734.

Ator, N.A., Weerts, E.M., Kaminski, B.J., Kautz, M.A., & Griffiths, R.R. (2000). Zaleplon and triazolam physical dependence assessed across increasing doses under a once-daily dosing regimen in baboons. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 61, 69-84.

Mintzer, M.Z., & Griffiths, R.R. (2000). Acute effects of triazolam on false recognition. Memory and Cognition, 28, 1357-1365.

Griffiths, R.R., & Chausmer, A.L. (2000). Caffeine as a model drug of dependence: Recent developments in understanding caffeine withdrawal, the Caffeine Dependence Syndrome, and caffeine negative reinforcement. Japanese Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 20, 223-231.

Garrett, B.E., & Griffiths, R.R. (2001). Intravenous nicotine and caffeine: Subjective and physiological effects in cocaine abusers. Journal of Experimental Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 296, 486-494.

Mintzer, M.Z., & Griffiths, R.R. (2001). False recognition in triazolam-induced amnesia. Journal of Memory and Language, 44, 475-492.

Mintzer, M.Z., & Griffiths, R.R. (2001). Acute dose-effects of scopolamine on false recognition. Psychopharmacology, 153, 425-433.

Jones, H.E., Garrett, B.E., & Griffiths, R.R. (2001). Reinforcing effects of oral cocaine: contextual determinants. Psychopharmacology, 154, 143-152.

Mintzer, M.Z., Allen, R.P., & Griffiths, R.R. (2001). Investigation of preference for nightly triazolam verses placebo in moderate social alcohol drinkers. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 15, 3-8.

Smith, B.J., Jones, H.E., & Griffiths, R.R. (2001). Physiological, subjective and reinforcing effects of oral and intravenous cocaine in humans. Psychopharmacology, 156, 435-444.

Mintzer, M.Z., Griffiths, R.R., Contoreggi, C., Kimes, A.S., London, E.D., & Ernst, M. (2001). Effects of triazolam on brain activity during episodic memory encoding: A PET study. Neuropsychopharmacology, 25, 744-756.

Mintzer, M.Z., & Griffiths, R.R. (2001). Alcohol and false recognition. Psychopharmacology, 159, 51-57.

Mintzer, M.Z., & Griffiths, R.R. (2002). Alcohol and triazolam: differential effects on memory, psychomotor performance, and subjective ratings of effects. Behavioural Pharmacology, 13, 653-658.

Jones, H.E., & Griffiths, R.R. (2003). Oral caffeine maintenance potentiates the reinforcing and stimulant subjective effects of intravenous nicotine in cigarette smokers. Psychopharmacology, 165, 280-290.

Mintzer, M.Z., & Griffiths, R.R. (2003). Lorazepam and scopolamine: A single-dose comparison of effects on human memory and attentional processes. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 11, 56-72.

Mintzer, M.Z., & Griffiths, R.R. (2003). Triazolam-amphetamine interactions: dissociation of effects on memory versus arousal. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 17, 17-29.

Chausmer, A.L., Smith, B.J., Kelly, R.Y., & Griffiths, R.R. (2003). Cocaine-like subjective effects of nicotine are not blocked by the D1 selective antagonist ecopipam (SCH 39166). Behavioural Pharmacology, 14, 111-120.

Mintzer, M.Z., Griffiths, R.R., & Hirshman, E. (2003). A paradoxical dissociation in the effects of midazolam on recollection and automatic processes in the process dissociation procedure. American Journal of Psychology, 116, 213-237.

Griffiths, R.R., Bigelow, G.E., & Ator, N.A. (2003). Principles of initial experimental drug abuse liability assessment in humans. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 70, S41-S54.

Ator, N.A., & Griffiths, R.R. (2003). Principles of abuse liability assessment by use of behavioral procedures in laboratory animals. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 70, S55-S72.

Kaminski, B.J., Sannerud, C.A., Weerts, E.M., Lamb, R.J., & Griffiths, R.R. (2003). Physical dependence in baboons chronically treated with low and high doses of diazepam. Behavioural Pharmacology, 14, 331-342.

Weerts, E.M., & Griffiths, R.R. (2003). The adenosine receptor antagonist CGS15943 reinstates cocaine-seeking behavior and maintains self-administration in baboons. Psychopharmacology, 168, 155-163.

Sobel, B.X., Sigmon, S.C. & Griffiths, R.R. (2004). Transdermal nicotine maintenance attenuates the subjective and reinforcing effects of intravenous nicotine, but not cocaine or caffeine, in cigarette-smoking stimulant abusers. Neuropsychopharmacology, 29, 991-1003.

Juliano, L.M., & Griffiths, R.R. (2004). A critical review of caffeine withdrawal: Empirical validation of symptoms and signs, incidence, severity, and associated features. Psychopharmacology, 176, 1-29.

Mintzer, M.Z., & Griffiths, R.R. (2005). Flumazenil-precipitated withdrawal in healthy volunteers following repeated diazepam exposure. Psychopharmacology, 178, 259-267.

Weerts, E.M. Goodwin A.K., Griffiths, R.R., Brown, P.R., W. Froestl, W., Jakobs, C., & Gibson, K.M. (2005). Spontaneous and precipitated withdrawal after chronic intragastric administration of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in baboons. Psychopharmacology, 179, 678-687.

Ator, N.A., Griffiths, R.R., & Weerts, E. M. (2005). Self-injection of flunitrazepam alone and in the context of methadone maintenance in baboons. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 78, 113-123.

Weerts, E.M., Ator, N.A., Kaminski, B.J., & Griffiths, R.R. (2005). Comparison of the behavioral effects of bretanzenil and flumazenil in triazolam-dependent and non-dependent baboons. European Journal of Pharmacology, 519, 103-113.

Mintzer, M.Z., & Griffiths, R.R. (2005). An abuse liability comparison of flunitrazepam and triazolam in sedative drug abusers. Behavioural Pharmacology, 16, 579-584.

Weerts, E.M., Froestl, W., & Griffiths, R.R. (2005). Effects of GABAergic modulators on food and cocaine self-administration in baboons. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 80:369-376.

Mintzer, M.Z., & Griffiths, R.R. (2005). Drugs, memory, and metamemory: A dose-effect study with lorazepam and scopolamine. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 13, 336-347.

Svikis, D.S., Berger, N., Haug, N.A., & Griffiths, R.R. (2005). Caffeine dependence in combination with a family history of alcoholism as a predictor of continued use of caffeine during pregnancy, American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 2344-2351.

Griffiths, R.R., & Johnson, M.W. (2005). Relative abuse liability of hypnotic drugs: A conceptual framework and algorithm for differentiating among compounds. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 66 (suppl. 9), 31-41.

Johnson, M.W., & Griffiths, R.R. (2005). Ramelteon (guest commentary). CNS Drugs, 19, 1066-1067.

Grudzinskas, C., Balster, R.L., Gorodetzky, C.W., Griffiths, R.R., Henningfield, J.E., Johanson, C.E., Mansbach, R.S., McCormick, C.G., Schnoll, S.H., Strain, E.C., & Wright, C. (2006). Impact of formulation on the abuse liability, safety and regulation of medications: The expert panel report. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 83 Suppl 1:S77-82.

Griffiths, R.R., Richards, W.A., McCann, U., & Jesse, R. (2006). Psilocybin can occasion mystical experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance. Psychopharmacology, 187, 268-283.

Goodwin, A.K, Griffiths, R.R; Brown, P.R., Froestl, W., Jakobs, C, Gibson, K.M., Weerts, E.M. (2006). Chronic intragastric administration of gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) produces physical dependence in baboons. Psychopharmacology,189, 71-82.

Johnson, M.W., Suess, P.E., & Griffiths, R.R. (2006). Ramelteon: A Novel Hypnotic Lacking Abuse Liability and Sedative Side Effects. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 1149-1157.

Carter, L.P., Richards, B.D., Mintzer, M.Z., & Griffiths, R.R. (2006). Relative abuse liability of GHB in humans: a comparison of psychomotor, subjective, and cognitive effects of supratherapeutic doses of triazolam, pentobarbital, and GHB. Neuropsychopharmacology, 31, 2537-2551.

Lofwall, M.R., Griffiths, R.R., & Mintzer, M.Z. (2006). Cognitive and subjective acute dose effects of intramuscular ketamine in healthy adults. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 14, 439-449.

Mintzer, M.Z., Kuwabara, H., Alexander, M., Brasic, J.R., Ye, W., Ernst, M., Griffiths, R.R., & Wong, D.F (2006). Dose effects of triazolam on brain activity during episodic memory encoding: A PET study. Psychopharmacology, 199, 445-461.

Weerts, E.M., Froestl, W., Kaminski, B. & Griffiths, R.R. (2007). Attenuation of cocaine-seeking by GABAB receptor agonists baclofen and CGP44532 but not the GABA reuptake blocker tiagabine in baboons. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 89, 206-213.

Mintzer, M.Z, & Griffiths, R.R. (2007). A triazolam/amphetamine dose-effect interaction study: dissociation of effects on memory versus arousal. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 192,425-440.

Carter L.P., Griffiths R.R, Suess P.E., Casada J.H., Wallace C.L., & Roache J.D. (2007). Relative abuse liability of indiplon and triazolam in humans: a comparison of psychomotor, subjective, and cognitive effects. Journal Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 322, 749-59.

Mintzer, M.Z, & Griffiths, R.R. (2007). Differential effects of scopolamine and lorazepam on working memory maintenance versus manipulation processes. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience, 7, 120-129.

Griffiths, R.R., Johnson, M.W., Richards, W.A., McCann, U., & Richards, B.D. (2008). Mystical-type experiences occasioned by psilocybin mediate the attribution of personal meaning and spiritual significance 14 months later. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 22(6), 621-632.

Johnson, M.W., Richards, W.A., & Griffiths, R.R. (2008). Human hallucinogen research: guidelines for safety. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 22(6), 603-620.

Ressig, C.J., Strain, E.C., & Griffiths, R.R. (2009). Caffeinated energy drinks – A growing problem. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 99, 1-10.

Sigmon, S.C., Herning, R.I., Better, W, Cadet J.L., & Griffiths R.R. (2009). Caffeine withdrawal, acute effects, tolerance, and absence of net beneficial effects of chronic administration: cerebral blood flow velocity, quantitative EEG, and subjective effects. Psychopharmacology, 204(4), 573-585.

Carter, L.P., Pardi, D., Gorsline, J., & Griffiths, R.R. (2009). Illicit gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and pharmaceutical sodium oxybate (Xyrem®): Differences in characteristics and misuse. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 104, 1-10.

Carter, L.P., Griffiths, R.R., & Mintzer, M.Z. (2009). Cognitive, psychomotor, and subjective effects of sodium oxybate and triazolam in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology, 206, 141-154.

Arria, A.M., Calderira, K.M.,Kasperski, S.J., O”Grady, K.E., Vincent, K.B., Griffiths, R.R., & Wish, E.D. (in press). Increased alcohol consumption, nonmedical prescription drug use, and illicit drug use are associated with energy drink consumption among college students. Journal of Addition Medicine.

Carter, L.P., Mintzer, M.Z., & Griffiths, R.R. (2009). Amnestic effects of sodium oxybate are less than those of triazolam – reply to Drs. Zvosec and Smith. Psychopharmacology, 207, 511-512.

Carter, L.P. & Griffiths, R.R. (2009). Principles of laboratory assessment of drug abuse liability and implications for clinical development. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 105S, S14-S25.

Kleykamp, B.A., Griffiths, R.R., & Mintzer, M.Z. (2010). Dose effects of triazolam and alcohol on cognitive performance in healthy volunteers. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 18, 1-16.

Mintzer, M.Z., Kleykamp, B.A., & Griffiths, R.R. (2010). Dose effects of triazolam and scopolamine on metamemory. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 18, 17-31.