DAVID E. NICHOLS, PHD
GEORGE R. GREER, MD
MARK A. GEYER, PHD
ROLAND R. GRIFFITHS, PHD
CHARLES S. GROB, MD
DENNIS J. MCKENNA, PHD
STEPHEN ROSS, M.D.
FRANZ X. VOLLENWEIDER, MD
ROBERT J. BARNHART
ELIZABETH GORDON
WILLIAM A. LINTON
CAREY TURNBULL
RICHARD M. WOLFE
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LYNETTE HERRING
Mark Geyer
OUR ADVISORY PANEL arrow
OUR RESEARCH arrow

MARK A. GEYER, PH.D

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Co-Founder, Director of Behavioral Pharmacology

Dr. Geyer is a psychopharmacologist and neuroscientist at the University of California, San Diego, where he holds the position of Professor of Psychiatry and Neurosciences and Vice-Chair for Scientific Affairs in the Department of Psychiatry. He is actively involved in both the Ph.D. Group in Neurosciences and the Clinical Psychology Ph.D. Program, and is the Director of the Neuropsychopharmacology Unit of the VA VISN 22 Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center. Since receiving his doctorate in Psychology in 1972, he has focused on basic research addressing the behavioral and neurobiological effects of psychoactive drugs. For over 25 years, he has had continuous funding from the National Institute on Drug Abuse to study the behavioral effects of hallucinogens in animals. Dr. Geyer is internationally known for his research on the psychophysiology, neurobiology, and pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia. He has published over 350 peer-reviewed papers, including many addressing the mechanisms subserving the effects of psychostimulants, hallucinogens, and entactogens. Dr. Geyer is an Associate Editor for Neuropsychopharmacology and is on the Editorial Board for additional highly ranked international journals. He is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology and past President of the international Serotonin Club. Dr. Geyer's broad experience as a researcher, grant reviewer, journal editor, and teacher lends invaluable scientific and professional expertise to the Institute as he provides the leadership to develop a strong program in the behavioral psychopharmacology of psychedelic agents.

Publications

Geyer, M.A., Segal, D.S. and Mandell, A.J.: Effect of intraventricular infusion of dopamine and norepinephrine on motor activity. Physiology and Behavior, 8:653-658, 1972.

Segal, D.S., McAllister, C. and Geyer, M.A.: Ventricular infusion of norepinephrine and amphetamine: Direct versus indirect action. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 2:79-86, 1974.

Knapp, S., Mandell, A.J. and Geyer, M.A.: Effects of amphetamines on regional tryptophan hydroxylase activity and synaptosomal conversion of tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptamine in rat brain. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 189:676-689, 1974.

Geyer, M.A., Dawsey, W.J. and Mandell, A.J.: Differential effects of caffeine, d-amphetamine, and methylphenidate on individual raphe cell fluorescence: A microspectrofluorimetric demonstration. Brain Research, 85:135-139, 1975.

Geyer, M.A., Warbritton, J.D., Menkes, D.B., Zook, J.A. and Mandell, A.J.: Opposite effects of intraventricular serotonin and bufotenin on rat startle responses. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 3:687-691, 1975.

Geyer, M.A., Petersen, L.R., Rose, G.J., Horwitt, D.D., Light, R.K., Adams, L.M., Zook, J.A., Hawkins, R.L. and Mandell, A.J.: The effects of LSD and mescaline-derived hallucinogens on sensory- integrative function: Tactile startle. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 207:837-847, 1978.

Braff, D.L., Stone, C., Callaway, E., Geyer, M.A., Glick, I.D. and Bali, L.: Prestimulus effects on human startle reflex in normals and schizophrenics. Psychophysiology, 15:339-343, 1978.

Geyer, M.A., Rose, G.J. and Petersen, L.R.: Mescaline increases startle responding equally in normal and raphe-lesioned rats. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 10:293-298, 1979.

Geyer, M.A. and Light, R.K.: LSD-induced alterations of investigatory responding in rats. Psychopharmacology, 65:41-47, 1979.

Geyer, M.A., Light, R.K., Rose, G.J., Petersen, L.R., Horwitt, D.D., Adams, L.M. and Hawkins, R.L.: A characteristic effect of hallucinogens on investigatory responding of rats. Psychopharmacology, 65:35-40, 1979.

Geyer, M.A.: Both indoleamine and phenylethylamine hallucinogens increase serotonin in both dorsal and median raphe neurons. Life Sciences, 26:431-434, 1980.

Braff, D.L. and Geyer, M.A.: Acute and chronic LSD effects on rat startle: Data supporting an LSD-rat model of schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 15:909-916, 1980.

Lee, E.H.Y. and Geyer, M.A.: Persistent effects of chronic administration of LSD on intracellular serotonin content in rat mid- brain. Neuropharmacology, 19:1005-1007, 1980.

Geyer, M.A., Petersen, L.R. and Rose, G.J.: Effects of serotonergic lesions on investigatory responding by rats in a holeboard. Behavioral and Neural Biology, 30:160-177, 1980.

Geyer, M.A.: Effects of levonantradol on habituation of startle in rats. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 21:235S-239S, 1981.

Geyer, M.A. and Braff, D.L.: Habituation of the blink reflex in normals and schizophrenic patients. Psychophysiology, 19:1-6, 1982.

Adams, L.M. and Geyer, M.A.: LSD-induced alterations in locomotor patterns and exploration in rats. Psychopharmacology, 77:179- 185, 1982.

Geyer, M.A., Segal, D.S. and Greenberg, B.D.: Increased startle responding in rats treated with phencyclidine. Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, 6:1-4, 1984.

Adams, L.M. and Geyer, M.A.: A proposed animal model for hallucino- gens based on LSD's effects on patterns of exploration in rats. Behavioral Neuroscience, 5:881-900, 1985.

Adams, L.M. and Geyer, M.A.: Effects of DOM and DMT in a proposed animal model of hallucinogenic activity. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 9:121-132, 1985.

Adams, L.M. and Geyer, M.A.: Patterns of exploration in rats distinguish lisuride from lysergic acid diethylamide. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 23:461-468, 1985.

Gately, P.F., Poon, S.L., Segal, D.S. and Geyer, M.A.: Serotonin depletions induced by 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine alter the response to amphetamine and the habituation of locomotor activity in rats. Psychopharmacology, 87:400-405, 1985.

Geyer, M.A., Gordon, J. and Adams, L.M.: Behavioral effects of xylamine-induced depletions of brain norepinephrine: Interaction with LSD. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 23:619-625, 1985.

Geyer, M.A., Russo, P.V. and Masten, V.L.: Multivariate assessment of locomotor behavior: Pharmacological and behavioral analyses. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 25:277-288, 1986.

Gately, P.F., Segal, D.S. and Geyer, M.A.: Sequential changes in behavior induced by continuous infusions of amphetamine in rats. Psychopharmacology, 91:217-220, 1987.

Geyer, M.A. and Braff, D.L.: Startle habituation and sensorimotor gating in schizophrenia and related animal models. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 13:643-668, 1987.

Geyer, M.A. and Tapson, G.S.: Habituation of tactile startle is altered by drugs acting on serotonin-2 receptors. Neuropsychopharmacology, 1:135-147, 1988.

Gold, L.H., Koob, G.F. and Geyer, M.A.: Stimulant and hallucinogenic behavioral profiles of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and N-ethyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDE). Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 247:547-555, 1988.

Braff, D.L. and Geyer, M.A.: Habituation deficits, serotonergic function, and schizophrenia: New animal model data. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 24:426-430, 1988.

Mansbach, R.S., Braff, D.L. and Geyer, M.A.: Prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response is disrupted by N-ethyl-3,4- methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDEA) in the rat. European Journal of Pharmacology, 167:49-55, 1989.

Mittman, S.M. and Geyer, M.A.: Effects of 5HT-1A agonists on locomotor and investigatory behaviors in rats differ from those of hallucinogens. Psychopharmacology, 98:321-329, 1989.

Mansbach, R.S. and Geyer, M.A.: Effects of phencyclidine and phencyclidine biologs on sensorimotor gating in the rat. Neuropsychopharmacology, 2:299-308, 1989.

Braff, D.L. and Geyer, M.A.: Sensorimotor gating and schizophrenia: Human and animal model studies. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47:181-188, 1990.

Grillon, C., Courchesne, E., Ameli, R., Geyer, M.A. and Braff, D.L.: Increased distractibility in schizophrenic patients: Electrophysiological and behavioral evidence. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47:171-179, 1990.

Paulus, M.P., Geyer, M.A., Gold, L.H. and Mandell, A.J.: Application of entropy measures derived from the ergodic theory of dynamical systems to rat locomotor behavior. Proceedings, National Academy of Sciences, 87:723-727, 1990.

Wing, L.L., Tapson, G.S. and Geyer, M.A.: 5HT-2 mediation of acute behavioral effects of hallucinogens in rats. Psychopharmacology, 100:417-425, 1990.

Geyer, M.A., Swerdlow, N.R., Mansbach, R.S. and Braff, D.L.: Startle response models of sensorimotor gating and habituation deficits in schizophrenia. Brain Research Bulletin, 25:485-498, 1990.

Callaway, C.W., Wing, L.L. and Geyer, M.A.: Serotonin release contributes to the locomotor stimulant effects of 3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in rats. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 254:456-464, 1990.

Gold, L.H., Koob, G.F. and Geyer, M.A.: Spatial pattern analysis reveals similarities between amphetamine conditioned and unconditioned locomotion. Behavioural Pharmacology, 1:209-220, 1990.

Butler, R.W., Braff, D.L., Rausch, J.L., Jenkins, M.A., Sprock, J. and Geyer, M.A.: Physiological evidence of exaggerated startle response in a subgroup of Vietnam veterans with combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147:1308-1312, 1990.

Paulus, M.P. and Geyer, M.A.: A temporal and spatial scaling hypothesis for the behavioral effects of psychostimulants. Psychopharmacology, 104:6-16, 1991.

Swerdlow, N.R., Caine, S.B. and Geyer, M.A.: Opiate-dopamine interactions in the neural substrates of acoustic startle gating in the rat. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 15:415-426, 1991.

Lehmann-Masten, V.D. and Geyer, M.A.: Spatial and temporal patterning distinguishes the locomotor activating effects of dizocilpine and phencyclidine in rats. Neuropharmacology, 30:629-636, 1991.

Callaway, C.W., Johnson, M.P., Gold, L.H., Nichols, D.E., and Geyer, M.A.: Amphetamine derivatives induce locomotor hyperactivity by acting as indirect serotonin agonists. Psychopharmacology, 104:293-301, 1991.

Mittman, S.M. and Geyer, M.A.: Dissociation of multiple effects of acute LSD on exploratory behavior in rats by ritanserin and propranolol. Psychopharmacology, 105:69-76, 1991.

Paulus, M.P., Geyer, M.A. and Mandell, A.J.: Statistical mechanics of a neurobiological dynamical system: The spectrum of local entro- pies (S(alpha)) applied to cocaine-perturbed behavior. Physica A, 174:567-577 1991.

Braff, D.L., Grillon, C. and Geyer, M.A.: Gating and habituation of the startle reflex in schizophrenic patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49:206-215, 1992.

Mansbach, R.S. and Geyer, M.A.: Parametric determinants in prestimulus modification of acoustic startle: Interaction with ketamine. Psychopharmacology, 105:162-168, 1991.

Keith V.A., Mansbach, R.S. and Geyer, M.A.: Failure of haloperidol to block the effects of phencyclidine and dizocilpine on acoustic startle prepulse inhibition. Biological Psychiatry, 30:557-566, 1991.

Rassnick, S., Koob, G.F. and Geyer, M.A.: Responding to acoustic startle during chronic ethanol intoxication and withdrawal. Psychopharmacology, 106:351-358, 1992.

Callaway, C.W., Rempel, N., Peng, R.Y. and Geyer, M.A.: Serotonin 5- HT-1-like receptors mediate hyperactivity in rats induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine. Neuropsychopharmacology, 7:113-127, 1992.

Paulus, M.P and Geyer, M.A.: The effects of MDMA and other methylenedioxy-substituted phenylalkylamines on the structure of rat locomotor activity. Neuropsychopharmacology, 7:15-31, 1992.

Callaway, C.W. and Geyer, M.A.: Stimulant effects of 3,4- methylenedioxy-methamphetamine in the nucleus accumbens of rat. European Journal of Pharmacology, 214:45-51, 1992.

Callaway, C.W. and Geyer, M.A.: Tolerance and cross-tolerance to the activating effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and a serotonin 5HT-1B agonist. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 263:318-326, 1992.

Swerdlow, N.R., Benbow, C.H., Zisook, S. Geyer, M.A. and Braff, D.L.: A preliminary assessment of sensorimotor gating in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 33:298- 301, 1993.

Paulus, M.P. and Geyer, M.A.: Three independent factors characterize spontaneous rat motor activity. Behavioural Brain Research, 53:11-20, 1993.

Swerdlow, N.R. and Geyer, M.A.: Clozapine and haloperidol in an animal model of sensorimotor gating deficits in schizophrenia. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 44:741-744, 1993.

Paulus, M.P. and Geyer, M.A.: Quantitative assessment of the microstructure of rat behavior: I. f(d), The extension of the scaling hypothesis. Psychopharmacology, 113:177-186, 1993.

Paulus, M.P., Callaway, C.W. and Geyer, M.A.: Quantitative assessment of the microstructure of rat behavior: II. Distinctive effects of dopamine releasers and reuptake inhibitors. Psychopharmacology, 113:187-198, 1993.

Krebs, K.M. and Geyer, M.A.: Behavioral characterization of alpha- ethyltryptamine, a tryptamine derivative having MDMA-like properties in rats. Psychopharmacology, 113:284-287, 1993. Cadenhead, K.S., Geyer, M.A. and Braff, D.L.: Impaired startle prepulse inhibition and habituation in schizotypal patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150:1862-1867, 1993.

Swerdlow, N.R., Auerbach, P., Monroe, S.M., Hartston, H., Geyer, M.A. and Braff, D.L.: Men are more inhibited than women by weak prepulses. Biological Psychiatry, 34:253-260, 1993.

Geyer, M.A., Wilkinson, L.S., Humby, T. and Robbins, T.W.: Isolation rearing of rats produces a deficit in prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle similar to that in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 34:361-372, 1993.

Krebs, K.M. and Geyer, M.A.: Cross-tolerance studies of serotonin receptors involved in behavioral effects of LSD in rats. Psychopharmacology, 113:429-437, 1994.

Paulus, M.P., Geyer, M.A. and Braff, D.L.: The assessment of sequential response organization in schizophrenic and control subjects. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 18:1169-1185, 1994.

Sipes, T.A. and Geyer, M.A.: Multiple serotonin receptor subtypes modulate prepulse inhibition of the startle response in rats. Neuropharmacology, 33:441-448, 1994.

Swerdlow, N.R., Braff, D.L., Taaid, N. and Geyer, M.A.: Assessing the validity of an animal model of deficient sensorimotor gating in schizophrenic patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51:139- 154, 1994.

Swerdlow, N.R., Filion, D., Geyer, M.A. and Braff, D.L.: "Normal" personality correlates of sensorimotor, cognitive, and visuospatial gating. Biological Psychiatry, 37:286-299, 1995.

Bakshi, V.P., Swerdlow, N.R. and Geyer, M.A.: Clozapine antagonizes phencyclidine-induced deficits in sensorimotor gating of the startle response. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 271:787-794, 1994.

Swerdlow, N.R., Paulsen, J., Braff, D.L., Butters, N., Geyer, M.A., and Swenson, M.R.: Impaired prepulse inhibition of acoustic and tactile startle response in patients with Huntington's Disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 58:192-200, 1995.

Swerdlow, N.R., Geyer, M.A., Perry, W., Cadenhead, K.C.and Braff, D.L.: Drug screening in "normal" controls. Biological Psychiatry, 38:123-124, 1995.

Geyer, M.A.: Serotonergic functions in arousal and motor activity. Behavioural Brain Research, 73:27-31, 1995.

Sipes, T.E. and Geyer, M.A.: DOI disruption of prepulse inhibition of startle in the rat is mediated by 5-HT2A and not 5-HT2C receptors. Behavioural Pharmacology, 6:839-842, 1995.

Bakshi, V.P. and Geyer, M.A.: Antagonism of phencyclidine-induced deficits in prepulse inhibition by the putative atypical antipsychotic olanzapine. Psychopharmacology, 122:198-201, 1995.

Ellenbroek, B.A., Geyer, M.A., and Cools, A.R.: The behavior of APO-SUS rats in animal models with construct validity for schizophrenia. Journal of Neuroscience, 15:7604-7611, 1995.

Bakshi, V.P., Geyer, M.A., Taaid, N., and Swerdlow, N.R.: A comparison of the effects of amphetamine, strychnine and caffeine on prepulse inhibition and latent inhibition. Behavioural Pharmacology, 6:801-809, 1995.

Humby, T., Wilkinson, L.S., Robbins, T.W., and Geyer, M.A.: Prepulses inhibit startle-induced reductions of extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens of rat. Journal of Neuroscience, 16:2149-2156, 1996.

Swerdlow, N.R., Braff, D.L., Hartston, H., Perry, W. and Geyer, M.A.: Latent inhibition in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 20:91-103, 1996.

Sipes, T.A. and Geyer, M.A.: Functional behavioral homology between rat 5-HT1B and guinea pig 5-HT1D receptors in the modulation of prepulse inhibition of startle. Psychopharmacology, 125:231-237, 1996.

Martinez, D.L. and Geyer, M.A.: Characterization of the disruptions of prepulse inhibition and habituation of startle induced by alpha-ethyltryptamine. Neuropsychopharmacology, 16:246-255, 1997.

Krebs-Thomson, K.M. and Geyer, M.A.: The role of 5-HT1A receptors in the locomotor-suppressant effects of LSD: WAY-100635 studies of 8-OHDPAT, DOI and LSD in rats. Behavioural Pharmacology, 7:551-559, 1996.

Paulus, M.P., Geyer, M.A. and Braff, D.L.: Use of methods from chaos theory to quantify a fundamental dysfunction in the behavioral organization of schizophrenic patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153:714-717, 1996.

Swerdlow, N.R., Bakshi, V.P. and Geyer, M.A.: Seroquel restores sensorimotor gating in phencyclidine-treated rats. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 279:1290-1299, 1996.

Clementz, B.A., Geyer, M.A. and Braff, D.L.: P50 suppression among schizophrenia and normal comparison subjects: A methodological analysis. Biological Psychiatry, 41:1035-1044, 1997.

Sipes, T.E. and Geyer, M.A.: DOI disrupts prepulse inhibition of startle in rats via 5-HT2A receptors in the ventral pallidum. Brain Research, 761:97-104, 1997.

Dulawa, S.C., Hen, R., Scearce-Levie, K., and Geyer, M.A.: Serotonin-1B receptor modulation of startle reactivity, habituation, and prepulse inhibition in wild-type and serotonin-1B knockout mice. Psychopharmacology, 132:125-134, 1997.

Cadenhead, K.S., Geyer, M.A., Butler, R.W., Perry, W., Sprock, J., and Braff, D.L.: Information processing deficits of schizophrenia patients: relationship to clinical ratings, gender and medication status. Schizophrenia Research, 28:51-62, 1997.

Bakshi, V.P. and Geyer, M.A.: Phencyclidine-induced deficits in prepulse inhibition of startle are blocked by prazosin, an alpha1 noradrenergic antagonist. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 283:666-674, 1997.

Clementz, B.A., Geyer, M.A. and Braff, D.L.: Multiple site evaluation of P50 suppression among schizophrenia and normal comparison subjects. Schizophrenia Research, 30:71-80, 1998.

Druhan, J.P., Geyer, M.A., and Valentino, R.J.: Lack of sensitization to the effects of d-amphetamine and apomorphine on sensorimotor gating in rats. Psychopharmacology, 135:296-304, 1998.

Krebs-Thomson, K.M., Paulus, M.P., and Geyer, M.A.: Effects of hallucinogens on locomotor and investigatory activity and patterns: Influence of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. Neuropsychopharmacology, 18:339-351, 1998.

Krebs-Thomson, K., Masten, V.L., Naiem, S., Paulus, M.P., and Geyer, M.A.: Modulation of phencyclidine-induced changes in locomotor activity and patterns in rats by serotonin. European Journal of Pharmacology, 343:135-143, 1998.

Krebs-Thomson, K. and Geyer, M.A.: Evidence for a functional interaction between 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors in rats. Psychopharmacology, 140:69-74, 1998.

Geyer, M.A.: Behavioral studies of hallucinogenic drugs in animals: Implications for schizophrenia research. Pharmacopsychiatry, 31:73-79, 1998.

Dulawa, S.C., Hen, R., Scearce-Levie, K., Geyer, M.A.: 5-HT1B receptor modulation of prepulse inhibition: Recent findings in wild-type and 5-HT1B knockout mice. In: Advances in Serotonin Receptor Research, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 861:79-84, 1998.

Abel, K., Waikar, M., Pedro, B., Hemsley, D., and Geyer, M.: Repeated testing of PPI and habituation of the startle reflex: A study in healthy human controls. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 12:330-337, 1998.

Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E., Heekeren, K., Thelen, B., Lindenblatt H., Kovar, K.-A., Sass, H., and Geyer, M.A.: The hallucinogen psilocybin increases prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex in healthy humans. Behavioural Pharmacology, 9:561-566, 1998.

Clementz, B.A., Geyer, M.A., and Braff, D.L.: Poor P50 suppression among schizophrenia patients and their first-degree biological relatives. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155:1691-1694, 1998.

Martinez, Z.A., Ellison, G.D., Geyer, M.A., and Swerdlow, N.R.: Effects of sustained cocaine exposure on sensorimotor gating of startle in rats. Psychopharmacology, 142:253-260, 1999.

Bakshi, V.P. and Geyer, M.A.: Multiple limbic regions mediate the disruption of prepulse inhibition produced in rats by the noncompetitive NMDA antagonist, dizocilpine. Journal of Neuroscience, 18:8394-8401, 1998.

Varty, G.B., Bakshi, V.P., and Geyer, M.A.: M100907, a serotonin 5-HT2A receptor antagonist and putative antipsychotic, blocks dizocilpine-induced prepulse inhibition deficits in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats. Neuropsychopharmacology, 20:311-321, 1999.

Bakshi, V.P. and Geyer, M.A.: Alpha-1 adrenergic receptors mediate sensorimotor gating deficits produced by intracerebral dizocilpine administration in rats. Neuroscience, 92:113-121, 1999.

Swerdlow, N.R., Taaid, N., Oostwegel, J.L., Randolph, E., and Geyer, M.A.: Towards a cross-species pharmacology of sensorimotor gating: Effects of amantadine, bromocriptine, pergolide and ropinirole on prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle in rats. Behavioural Pharmacology, 9:389-396, 1998.

Swerdlow, N.R., Bakshi, V.P., Waikar, J., Taaid, N., and Geyer, M.A.: Seroquel, clozapine and chlorpromazine restore sensorimotor gating in ketamine-treated rats. Psychopharmacology, 140:75-80, 1998.

Bakshi, V.P., Tricklebank, M., Neijt, H.C., Lehmann-Masten, V., and Geyer, M.A.: Disruption of prepulse inhibition and increases in locomotor activity by competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists in rats. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 288:643-652, 1999.

Cadenhead, K.S., Carasso, B.S., Swerdlow, N.R., Geyer, M.A., and Braff, D.L.: Prepulse

inhibition and habituation of the startle response are stable neurobiological measures in a normal male population. Biological Psychiatry, 45:360-364, 1999.

Vollenweider, F.X., Remensberger, S., Hell, D., and Geyer, M.A.: Opposite effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on sensorimotor gating in rats versus healthy humans. Psychopharmacology, 143:365-372, 1999.

Martinez, Z.A., Ellison, G.D., Geyer, M.A., and Swerdlow, N.R.: Effects of sustained phencyclidine exposure on sensorimotor gating of startle in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology, 21:28-39, 1999.

Braff, D.L., Swerdlow, N.R., and Geyer, M.A.: Symptom correlates of prepulse inhibition deficits in male schizophrenic patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156:596-602, 1999.

Light, G.A., Malaspina, D., Geyer, M.A., Luber, B.M., Coleman, E.A., Sackeim, H.A., and Braff, D.L.: Amphetamine disrupts P50 suppression in normal subjects. Biological Psychiatry, 46:990-996, 1999.

Grailhe, R., Waeber, C., Dulawa, S.C., Hornung, J.P., Zhuang, X., Brunner, D. Geyer, M.A., and Hen, R.: Increased exploratory activity and altered response to LSD in mice lacking the 5-HT5A receptor. Neuron, 22:1-20, 1999.

Ralph, R.J., Varty, G.B., Kelly, M.A., Wang, Y-M., Caron, M.G., Rubinstein, M., Grandy, D.K., Low, M.J., and Geyer, M.A.: The dopamine D2 but not D3 or D4 receptor subtype is essential for the disruption of prepulse inhibition produced by amphetamine in mice. Journal of Neuroscience, 19:4627-4633, 1999.

Perry, W., Geyer, M.A., and Braff, D.L.: Sensorimotor gating and thought disturbance measured in close temporal proximity in schizophrenic patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56:277-281, 1999.

Dulawa, S.C., Grandy, D.K., Low, M.J., Paulus, M.P., and Geyer, M.A.: Dopamine D4 receptor-knockout mice exhibit reduced exploration of novel stimuli. Journal of Neuroscience, 19:9550-9556, 1999.

Geyer, M.A.: Assessing prepulse inhibition of startle in wild-type and knockout mice. Psychopharmacology, 147:11-14, 1999.

Geyer, M.A., Krebs-Thomson, K., Varty, G.B.: The effects of M100907 in pharmacological and developmental animal models of prepulse inhibition deficits in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology, 21:S134-S142, 1999.

Swerdlow, N.R., Geyer, M.A., Blumenthal, T.D., Hartman, P.L.: Effects of discrete acoustic prestimuli on perceived magnitude and behavioral responses to startling acoustic and tactile stimuli. Psychobiology 27: 453-461, 1999.

Bouwknecht, J. A.; Hijzen, T. H.; van der, G. J.; Dirks, A.; Maes, R. A.; Hen, R.; Geyer, M. A.; Olivier, B. Startle responses, heart rate, and temperature in 5-HT1B receptor knockout mice. Neuroreport 2000, 11, 4097-4102.

Cadenhead, K. S.; Light, G. A.; Geyer, M. A.; Braff, D. L. Sensory gating deficits assessed by the P50 event-related potential in subjects with schizotypal personality disorder. Am. J Psychiatry 2000, 157, 55-59.

Dulawa, S. C.; Scearce-Levie, K. A.; Hen, R.; Geyer, M. A. Serotonin releasers increase prepulse inhibition in serotonin 1B knockout mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2000, 149, 306-312.

Dulawa, S. C.; Geyer, M. A. Effects of strain and serotonergic agents on prepulse inhibition and habituation in mice. Neuropharmacology 2000, 39, 2170-2179.

Dulawa, S. C.; Gross, C.; Stark, K. L.; Hen, R.; Geyer, M. A. Knockout mice reveal opposite roles for serotonin 1A and 1B receptors in prepulse inhibition. Neuropsychopharmacology 2000, 22, 650-659.

Farid, M.; Martinez, Z. A.; Geyer, M. A.; Swerdlow, N. R. Regulation of sensorimotor gating of the startle reflex by serotonin 2A receptors. Ontogeny and strain differences. Neuropsychopharmacology 2000, 23, 623-632.

Light, G. A.; Geyer, M. A.; Clementz, B. A.; Cadenhead, K. S.; Braff, D. L. Normal P50 suppression in schizophrenia patients treated with atypical antipsychotic medications. Am. J Psychiatry 2000, 157, 767-771.

Martinez, Z. A.; Halim, N. D.; Oostwegel, J. L.; Geyer, M. A.; Swerdlow, N. R. Ontogeny of phencyclidine and apomorphine-induced startle gating deficits in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2000, 65, 449-457.

Martinez, Z. A.; Oostwegel, J.; Geyer, M. A.; Ellison, G. D.; Swerdlow, N. R. "Early" and "late" effects of sustained haloperidol on apomorphine- and phencyclidine-induced sensorimotor gating deficits. Neuropsychopharmacology 2000, 23, 517-527.

Palmer, A. A.; Dulawa, S. C.; Mottiwala, A. A.; Conti, L. H.; Geyer, M. A.; Printz, M. P. Prepulse startle deficit in the Brown Norway rat: a potential genetic model. Behav Neurosci. 2000, 114, 374-388.

Paulus, M. P.; Varty, G. B.; Geyer, M. A. The genetic liability to stress and postweaning isolation have a competitive influence on behavioral organization in rats. Physiol Behav 2000, 68, 389-394.

Swerdlow, N. R.; Braff, D. L.; Geyer, M. A. Animal models of deficient sensorimotor gating: what we know, what we think we know, and what we hope to know soon. Behav Pharmacol 2000, 11, 185-204.

Swerdlow, N. R.; Martinez, Z. A.; Hanlon, F. M.; Platten, A.; Farid, M.; Auerbach, P.; Braff, D. L.; Geyer, M. A. Toward understanding the biology of a complex phenotype: rat strain and substrain differences in the sensorimotor gating-disruptive effects of dopamine agonists. J Neurosci. 2000, 20, 4325-4336.

Varty, G. B.; Paulus, M. P.; Braff, D. L.; Geyer, M. A. Environmental enrichment and isolation rearing in the rat: effects on locomotor behavior and startle response plasticity. Biol. Psychiatry 2000, 47, 864-873.

Dirks, A.; Pattij, T.; Adriaan, B. J.; Westphal, T. T.; Hijzen, T. H.; Groenink, L.; van der, G. J.; Oosting, R. S.; Hen, R.; Geyer, M. A.; Olivier, B. 5-HT(1B) receptor knockout, but not 5-HT(1A) receptor knockout mice, show reduced startle reactivity and footshock-induced sensitization, as measured with the acoustic startle response. Behav Brain Res. 2001, 118, 169-178.

Krebs-Thomson, K.; Giracello, D.; Solis, A.; Geyer, M. A. Post-weaning handling attenuates isolation-rearing induced disruptions of prepulse inhibition in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2001, 120, 221-224.

Liechti, M. E.; Geyer, M. A.; Hell, D.; Vollenweider, F. X. Effects of MDMA (Ecstasy) on Prepulse Inhibition and Habituation of Startle in Humans after Pretreatment with Citalopram, Haloperidol, or Ketanserin. Neuropsychopharmacology 2001, 24, 240-252.

Ralph, R. J.; Paulus, M. P.; Fumagalli, F.; Caron, M. G.; Geyer, M. A. Prepulse inhibition deficits and perseverative motor patterns in dopamine transporter knock-out mice: differential effects of D1 and D2 receptor antagonists. J Neurosci. 2001, 21, 305-313.

Dirks, A., Pattij, T., Bouwknecht, J.A., Westphal, T.T., Hijzen, T.H., Groenink, L., Gugten, J.V-D., Oosting, R.S., Hen, R., Geyer, M.A., and Olivier, B.: 5-HT1B receptor knockout, but not 5-HT1A receptor knockout mice, show reduced startle reactivity and footshock-induced sensitization, as measured with the acoustic startle response. Behavioural Brain Research, 118:169-178, 2001.

Krebs-Thomson, K., Giracello, D., Solis, A., and Geyer, M.A.: Post-weaning handling attenuates isolation-rearing induced disruptions of prepulse inhibition in rats. Behavioural Brain Research, 120:221-224, 2001.

Ralph, R.J., Paulus, M.P., and Geyer, M.A.: Strain-specific effects of amphetamine on prepulse inhibition and patterns of locomotor behavior in mice. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 298:148-155, 2001.

Braff, D.L., Geyer, M.A., Light, G.A., Sprock, J., Perry, W., Cadenhead, K.S., and Swerdlow, N.R.: Impact of prepulse characteristics on the detection of sensorimotor gating deficits in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 49:171-178, 2001.

Geyer, M.A., Krebs-Thomson, K., Braff, D.L., and Swerdlow, N.R.: Pharmacological studies of prepulse inhibition models of sensorimotor gating deficits in schizophrenia: A decade in review. Psychopharmacology, 156:117-154, 2001.

Swerdlow, N.R., Geyer, M.A., and Braff, D.L.: Neural circuitry of prepulse inhibition of startle in the rat: Current knowledge and future challenges. Psychopharmacology, 156:194-215, 2001.

Braff, D.L., Geyer, M.A., and Swerdlow, N.R.: Human studies of prepulse inhibition of startle: Normal subjects, patient groups, and pharmacological studies. Psychopharmacology, 156:234-258, 2001.

Ludewig, K., Geyer M.A., Etzensberger, M., and Vollenweider, F.X.: Stability of the acoustic startle reflex, prepulse inhibition, and habituation in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 55:129-137, 2002.

Martinez-Price, D.L., Krebs-Thomson, K., and Geyer, M.A.: Behavioral psychopharmacology of MDMA and MDMA-like drugs: A review of human and animal studies. Addiction Research and Theory, 10:43-67, 2002.

Weiner, D.M., Burstein, E.S., Nash, N., Croston, G.E., Currier, E.A., Vanover, K.E., Harvey, S.C., Donohue, E., Hansen, H.C., Andersson, C.M., Spalding, T.A., Gibson, D.F.C., Krebs-Thomson, K., Powell, S.B., Geyer, M.A., Hacksell, U., and Brann, M.R.: 5-HT2A receptor inverse agonists as antipsychotics. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 299:268-276, 2001.

Swerdlow, N.R., Karban, B., Ploum, Y., Sharp, R., Geyer, M.A., and Eastvold, A.: Tactile prepuff inhibition of startle in children with Tourette’s syndrome: In search of an “fMRI-friendly” startle paradigm. Biological Psychiatry, 50:578-585, 2001.

Vollenweider, F.X. and Geyer, M.A.: A systems model of altered consciousness: Integrating natural and drug-induced psychoses. Brain Research Bulletin, 56:495-507, 2001.

Martinez-Price, D.L. and Geyer, M.A.: Subthalamic and nigral 5-HT1-receptor modulation of RU 24969-induced behavioral profile in rats. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, 71:569-580, 2002.

Cadenhead, K.S., Light, G.A., Geyer, M.A., McDowell, J.E., and Braff, D.L.: Neurobiological measures in schizotypal personality disorder: Beginning to define an inhibitory endophenotype? American Journal of Psychiatry, 159:869-871, 2002.

Dirks, A., Groenink, L., Schipholt, M. L., Gugten, J.V-D., Hijzen, T.H., Geyer, M.A., and Olivier, B.: Reduced startle reactivity and plasticity in transgenic mice overexpressing corticotropin-releasing hormone. Biological Psychiatry, 51:583-590, 2002.

Ludewig, S., Ludewig, K., Geyer M.A., Hell, D., and Vollenweider, F.X.: Prepulse inhibition deficits in patients with panic disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 15:55-60, 2002.

Swerdlow, N.R., Eastvold, A., Karban, B., Ploum, Y., Stephany, N., Geyer, M.A., Cadenhead, K.S., and Auerbach, P.P.: Dopamine agonist effects on startle and sensorimotor gating in normal control subjects: Time course studies. Psychopharmacology, 161:189-201, 2002.

Swerdlow, N.R., Shoemaker, J., Stephany, N., Wasserman, L., Ro, H.J., and Geyer, M.A.: Prestimulus effects on startle magnitude: Sensory or motor? Behavioral Neuroscience, 116:672-681, 2002.

Geyer, M.A., McIlwain, K.L., and Paylor, R.: Mouse genetic models for prepulse inhibition: An early review. Molecular Psychiatry, 7:1039-1053, 2002.

Martinez, Z.A., Platten, A., Pollack, E., Shoemaker, J., Ro, H., Pitcher, L., Geyer, M.A., and Swerdlow, N.R.: “Typical” but not “atypical” antipsychotic effects on startle gating deficits in prepubertal rats. Psychopharmacology, 161:38-46, 2002.

Ralph-Williams, R.J., Paulus, M.P., Zhuang, X., Hen, R., and Geyer, M.A.: Valproate attenuates hyperactive and perseverative behaviors in mutant mice with a dysregulated dopamine system. Biological Psychiatry, 53:352-359, 2003.

Powell, S.B., Swerdlow, N.R., Pitcher, L.K., and Geyer, M.A.: Isolation rearing-induced deficits in prepulse inhibition and locomotor habituation are not potentiated by water deprivation. Physiology and Behavior, 77:55-64, 2002.

Abel, K.M., Matthew, P.G., Allin, M.P.G., Hemsley, D.R., and Geyer, M.A.: Low dose ketamine increases prepulse inhibition in healthy men. Neuropharmacology, 44:729-737, 2003.

Powell, S.B. and Geyer, M.A.: Developmental markers of psychiatric disorders as identified by sensorimotor gating. Neurotoxicity Research, 4: 489-502, 2002.

Ralph-Williams, R.J., Lehmann-Masten, V., and Geyer, M.A.: Dopamine D1 rather than D2 receptor agonists disrupt prepulse inhibition of startle in mice. Neuropsychopharmacology, 28:108-118, 2003.

Vollenweider, F.X., Liechti, M.E., Gamma, A., Greer, G., and Geyer, M.A.: Acute psychological and neurophysiological effects of MDMA in humans. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 34:171-184, 2002.

Ralph-Williams, R.J., Lehmann-Masten, V., Otero-Corchon, V., Low, M.J., and Geyer, M.A.: Differential effects of direct and indirect dopamine agonists on prepulse inhibition: A study in D1 and D2 receptor knockout mice. Journal of Neuroscience, 22:9604-9611, 2002.

Kumari, V., Gray, J.A., Soni, W., Geyer, M.A., Mitterschiffthaler, M., Ffytche, D., Vythelingum, G.N., Simmons, A., Williams, S.C.R., and Sharma, T.: Neural correlates of prepulse inhibition in normal and schizophrenic subjects: A functional MRI Study. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging. 122:99-113, 2003.

Ellwanger, J., Geyer, M.A., and Braff, D.L.: The relationship of age to prepulse inhibition and habituation of the acoustic startle response, Biological Psychology, 62:175-195, 2003.

Henry, S.A., Lehmann-Masten, V., Gasparini, F., Geyer, M.A., and Markou, A.: The mGLUR5 antagonist MPEP, but not the mGLUR2/3 agonist LY314582, augments PCP effects on prepulse inhibition and locomotor activity. Neuropharmacology, 43:1199-1209, 2002.

Risbrough, V.B., Brodkin, J.D., and Geyer, M.A.: GABA-A and 5-HT1A receptor agonists block expression of fear-potentiated startle in mice. Neuropsychopharmacology, 28:654-663, 2003.

Powell, S.B., Paulus, M.P., Hartman, D.S., Godel, T., and Geyer, M.A.: RO-10-5824 is a selective dopamine D4 receptor agonist that increases novel object exploration in C57 mice. Neuropharmacology, 44:473-481, 2003.

Ludewig, K., Geyer M.A., and Vollenweider, F.X.: Deficits in prepulse inhibition and habituation in never-medicated first-episode schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 54:121-128, 2003.

Brody, S.A., Geyer, M.A., and Large, C.H.: Lamotrigine prevents ketamine but not amphetamine-induced deficits in prepulse inhibition in mice. Psychopharmacology, 169:240-246, 2003.

Powell, S.B., Geyer, M.A., Preece, M.A., Pitcher, L.K., Reynolds, G.P., and Swerdlow, N.R.: Dopamine depletion of the nucleus accumbens reverses isolation induced deficits in prepulse inhibition in rats. Neuroscience, 119:233-240, 2003.

Ludewig, K., Seitz, A., Obrist, M., Geyer M.A., and Vollenweider, F.X.: The acoustic startle reflex and its modulation: Effects of age and gender in humans. Biological Psychology, 63:311-323, 2003.

Geyer, M.A. and Ellenbroek, B.A.: Animal behavior models of the mechanisms underlying antipsychotic atypicality. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 27:1071-1079, 2003.

Risbrough, V.B., Hauger, R.L., Pelleymounter, M.A., and Geyer, M.A.: Role of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptors 1 and 2 in CRF-potentiated acoustic startle in mice. Psychopharmacology, 170:178-187, 2003.

Dirks, A., Groenink, L., Westphal, K.G.C., Olivier, J.D.A., Verdouw, M., Gugten, J.V-D., Geyer, M.A., and Olivier, B.: Reversal of startle gating deficits in transgenic mice overexpressing corticotropin-releasing factor by antipsychotic drugs. Neuropsychopharmacology, 28:1790-1798, 2003.

Brody, S.A., Dulawa, S.C., Geyer, M.A., and Conquet, F.: Assessment of a prepulse inhibition deficit in a mutant mouse lacking mglu5 receptors. Molecular Psychiatry, 9:35-41, 2004.

Heekeren, K., Meincke, U., Geyer, M.A., and Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E.: Attentional modulation of prepulse inhibition (PPI): A new startle paradigm. Neuropsychobiology, 49:88-93, 2004.

Brody, S.A., Conquet, F., and Geyer, M.A.: Effect of antipsychotic treatment on the prepulse inhibition deficit of mgluR5 knockout mice. Psychopharmacology, 172:187-195, 2004.

Powell, S.B., Risbrough, V.B., and Geyer, M.A.: Potential use of animal models to examine antipsychotic prophylaxis for schizophrenia. Clinical Neuroscience Research, 3:289-296, 2003.

Brody, S.A., Conquet, F., and Geyer, M.A.: Disruption of prepulse inhibition in mice lacking mGluR1. European Journal of Neuroscience, 18:3361-3366, 2003.

Powell, S.B., Geyer, M.A., Gallagher, D., and Paulus, M.P.: The balance between approach and avoidance behaviors in a novel object exploration paradigm in mice. Behavioural Brain Research, in press.

Barr, A.M., Lehmann-Masten, V., Paulus, M., Gainetdinov, R.R., Caron, M.G., and Geyer, M.A.: The selective serotonin-2A receptor antagonist M100907 reverses behavioral deficits in dopamine transporter knockout mice. Neuropsychopharmacology, 29:221-228, 2004.

Powell, S.B., Lehmann-Masten, V.D., Paulus, M., Gainetdinov, R.R., Caron, M.G., and Geyer, M.A.: MDMA “ecstasy” alters the hyperactive and perseverative behaviors in dopamine transporter knockout mice. Psychopharmacology, 173:310-317, 2004.

Meincke, U., Light, G.A., Geyer, M.A., Braff, D.L., and Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E.: Sensitization and habituation of the acoustic startle reflex in patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 126:51-61, 2004.

Heekeren, K., Daumann, J., Geyer, M.A., and Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E.: Plasticity of the acoustic startle reflex in currently abstinent ecstasy users. Psychopharmacology, 173:418-424, 2004.

Ludewig, S., Geyer, M.A., Ramseier, M., Vollenweider, F.X., Rechsteiner, E., and Cattapan-Ludewig, K.: Information processing deficits and cognitive dysfunctions in panic disorder. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 30:37-43, 2005.

Brody, S.A. and Geyer, M.A.: Interactions of the mGluR5 gene with breeding and maternal factors on startle and prepulse inhibition in mice. Neurotoxicity Research, 6:79-90. 2004.

Meincke, U., Mörth, D., Voß, T., Thelen, B., Geyer, M.A., and Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E.: Prepulse inhibition of the acoustically evoked startle reflex in patients with an acute schizophrenic psychosis – a longitudinal study. European Archives of Psychiatry and clinical Neuroscience, 254:415-421, 2004.

Erhardt, S., Schwieler, L., Emanuelsson, C., and Geyer, M.A.: Endogenous kynurenic acid disrupts prepulse inhibition. Biological Psychiatry, 56:255-260, 2004.

Risbrough, V.B., Hauger, R.L., Roberts, A.L., Vale, W.W., and Geyer, M.A.: Corticotropin-Releasing Factor receptors CRF1 and CRF2 exert both additive and opposing influences on defensive startle behavior. Journal of Neuroscience, 24: 6545-6552, 2004.

Harte, M.K., Powell, S.B., Reynolds, L.M., Geyer, M.A., Swerdlow, N.R., and Reynolds, G.: Reduced N-acetylaspartate in the temporal cortex of rats reared in isolation. Biological Psychiatry, 56:296-299, 2004.

Abel, K.M., Jolley, S., Hemsley, D.R., and Geyer, M.A.: The influence of schizotypy traits on prepulse inhibition in young healthy controls. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 18:181-188, 2004.

Ogden, C.A., Rich, M.E., Schork, N.J., Paulus, M.P., Geyer, M.A., Lohr, J.B., Kuczenski, R., and Niculescu, A.B.: Candidate genes, pathways and mechanisms for bipolar (manic-depressive) and related disorders: an expanded convergent functional genomics approach. Molecular Psychiatry, 9:1007-1029, 2004.

Zhou, X., Long, J.M., Geyer, M.A., Masliah, E., Kelsoe, J.R., Wynshaw-Boris, A., and Chien, K.R.: Reduced expression of the Sp4 gene in mice causes deficits in sensorimotor gating and memory associated with hippocampal vacuolization. Molecular Psychiatry, 10:393-406, 2005.

Risbrough, V.B. and Geyer, M.A.: Anxiogenic treatments do not increase fear-potentiated startle in mice. Biological Psychiatry, 57:33-43, 2005.

Powell, S.B., Palomo, J., Carasso, B., Bakshi, V.P., and Geyer, M.A.: Yohimbine disrupts prepulse inhibition in rats via action at 5-HT1A receptors, not alpha2 adrenoceptors. Psychopharmacology, 180:491-500, 2005.

Brody, S.A., Nakanishi, N., Tu, S., Lipton, S.A., and Geyer, M.A.: A developmental influence of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR3A subunit on prepulse inhibition of startle. Biological Psychiatry, 57:1147-1152, 2005.

Meincke, U., Light, G.A., Geyer, M.A., and Braff, D.L.: On the waveform of the acoustic startle blink in the paradigm of prepulse inhibition - methodological and physiological aspects. Neuropsychobiology, 52:24-27, 2005.

de Jongh, R., Geyer, M.A., Olivier, B., and Groenink, L.: The effects of sex and neonatal maternal separation on fear-potentiated and light-enhanced startle. Behavioural Brain Research, 161:190-196, 2005.

Floresco, S., Geyer, M.A. Gold, L.H., and Grace, A.: Developing predictive animal models and establishing a preclinical trials network for assessing treatment effects on cognition in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 31:888-894, 2005.

290. Swerdlow, N.R., Geyer, M.A., Shoemaker, J.M., Light, G.A., Braff, D.L., Stevens, K.E., Sharp, R., Breier, M., Neary, A., and Auerbach, P.P.: Convergence and divergence in the neurochemical regulation of prepulse inhibition of startle and N40 suppression in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology, 31:506-515, 2006.

291. Geyer, M.A. and Heinssen, R.: New approaches to measurement and treatment research to improve cognition in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 31:806-809, 2005.

Ong, J.C., Brody, S.A., Large, C.H., and Geyer, M.A.: An investigation of the efficacy of mood stabilizers in rodent models of prepulse inhibition. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 315:1163-1171, 2005.

Oranje, B., Geyer, M.A., Bocker, K.B.E., Kenemans, J.L., Verbaten, M.N.: Prepulse inhibition and P50 suppression: Commonalities and dissociations. Psychiatry Research, 143:147-158, 2006.

Varty, G.B., Powell, S.B., Lehmann-Masten, V.D., Buell, M.R., and Geyer, M.A.: Isolation rearing of mice induces deficits in prepulse inhibition of the startle response. Behavioural Brain Research, 169:162-167, 2006.

Postma, P., Gray, J.A., Sharma, T., Geyer, M., Mehrotra, R., Das M., Zachariah, E., Hines, M., Williams, S.C.R., and Kumari, V.: A behavioural and functional neuroimaging investigation into the effects of nicotine on sensorimotor gating in healthy subjects and persons with schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology, 184:589-599, 2006.

Moore, H., Jentsch, J.D., Ghajarnia, M.E., Geyer, M.A., and Grace, A.A.: A neurobehavioral systems analysis of adult rats exposed to methylazoxymethanol acetate on E17: Implications for the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 60:253-264, 2006.

Vanover, K.E., Weiner, D.M., Makhay, M., Veinbergs, I., Gardell, L.R., Lameh, J., Del Tredici, A.L., Piu, F., Schiffer, H.H., Ott, T.R., Burstein, E.S., Uldam, A.K., Thygesen, M.B., Schlienger, N., Andersson, C.M., Son, T.Y., Harvey, S.C., Powell, S.B., Geyer, M.A., Tolf, B-R., Brann, M.R., and Davis, R.E.: Pharmacological and behavioral profile of N-(4-fluorophenylmethyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-N'-(4-(2-methylpropyloxy)phenylmethyl) carbamide (2R,3R)-dihydroxybutanedioate (2:1) (ACP-103), a novel 5-hydroxytryptamine(2A) receptor inverse agonist. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 317:910-918, 2006.

Geyer, M.A.: Are cross-species measures of sensorimotor gating useful for the discovery of procognitive cotreatments for schizophrenia? Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 8:9-16, 2006.

Heekeren, K., Neukirch, A., Daumann, J., Stoll, M., Obradovic, M., Kovar, K-A., Geyer, M.A., and Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E.: Prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex and its attentional modulation in the human S-ketamine and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) models of psychosis. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 21:312-320, 2007.

Barr, A.M., Powell, S.B., Markou, A., and Geyer, M.A.: Iloperidone reduces sensorimotor gating deficits in pharmacological models, but not a developmental model, of disrupted prepulse inhibition in rats. Neuropharmacology, 51:457-465, 2006.

Risbrough, V., Masten, V., Caldwell, S., Paulus, M., Low, M., and Geyer, M.A.: Differential contributions of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors to MDMA-induced effects on locomotor behavior patterns in mice. Neuropsychopharmacology, 31:2349-2358, 2006.

Zhou, X., Qyang, Y., Kelsoe, J.R., Masliah, E., and Geyer, M.A.: Impaired postnatal development of hippocampal dentate gyrus in Sp4 null mutant mice. Genes, Brain and Behavior, 6:269-276, 2007.

McDowell, J.E., Brown, G.G., Lazar, N., Camchong, J., Sharp, R., Krebs-Thomson, K., Eyler, L.T., Braff, D.L., and Geyer, M.A.: The neural correlates of habituation of response to startling tactile stimuli presented in a functional magnetic imaging environment. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 148:1-10, 2006.

Kumari, V., Antonova, E., Geyer, M.A., ffytche, D., Williams, S.C.R., and Sharma, T.: An fMRI investigation of startle gating deficits in schizophrenia patients treated with typical or atypical antipsychotics. The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 10:463-477, 2007.

Geyer, M.A.: The family of sensorimotor gating disorders: Comorbidities or diagnostic overlaps? Neurotoxicity Research, 10:211-220, 2006.

Krebs-Thomson, K., Ruiz, E., Masten, V., Buell, M., and Geyer, M.A.: The roles of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors in the effects of 5-MeO-DMT on locomotor activity and prepulse inhibition in rats. Psychopharmacology, 189:319-329, 2006.

Le-Niculescu, H., Balaraman, Y., Patel, S., Tan, J., Sidhu, K., Jerome, R.E., Edenberg, H.J., Kuczenski, R., Geyer, M.A., Nurnberger, J.I. Jr., Faraone, S.V., Tsuang, M.T., and Niculescu, A.B.: Towards understanding the schizophrenia code: an expanded convergent functional genomics approach. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 144:129-158, 2007.

Abel, K.M., Allin, M., van Amelsvoort, T., Hemsley, D., and Geyer, M.A.: The indirect serotonergic agonist D-fenfluramine and prepulse inhibition in healthy men. Neuropharmacology, 52:1088-1094, 2007.

Vollenweider, F.X., Csomor, P.A., Knappe, B., Geyer, M.A., and Quednow, B.B.: The effects of the preferential 5-HT2A agonist psilocybin on prepulse inhibition of startle in healthy human volunteers
depend on interstimulus interval. Neuropsychopharmacology, 32:1876-1887, 2007.

Semenova, S., Geyer, M.A., Sutcliffe, J.G., Markou, A., and Hedlund, P.B.: Inactivation of the 5-HT7 receptor partially blocks PCP-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition. Biological Psychiatry, 63:98-105, 2008.

Vinkers, C.H., Risbrough, V.B., Geyer, M.A., Caldwell, S., Low, M.J., and Hauger, R.L.: Role of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in CRF-induced disruption of sensorimotor gating. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, 86:550-558, 2007.

Csomor, P.A., Stadler, R.R., Feldon, J., Yee, B.K., Geyer, M.A., and Vollenweider, F.X.: Haloperidol differentially modulates prepulse inhibition and P50 suppression in healthy humans stratified for low and high gating levels. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33:497-512, 2008.

Harte, M.K., Powell, S.B., Swerdlow, N.R., Geyer, M.A., and Reynolds, G.P.: Deficits in parvalbumin and calbindin immunoreactive cells in the hippocampus of isolation reared rats. Journal of Neural Transmission, 114:893-898, 2007.

Young, J.W., Minassian, A., Paulus, M.P., Geyer, M.A., and Perry, W.: A reverse-translational approach to bipolar disorder: Rodent and human studies in the behavioral pattern monitor. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 31:882-896, 2007.

Kask, K., Gulinello, M., Bäckström, T., Geyer, M.A., and Sundström-Poromaa, I.: Patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder have increased startle response across both cycle phases and lower levels of prepulse inhibition during the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33:2283-2290, 2008.

Jonkman, S., Risbrough, V.B., Geyer, M.A., and Markou, A.: Spontaneous nicotine withdrawal potentiates the effects of stress in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33:2131-2138, 2008.

Zhou, X., Kelsoe, J.R., and Geyer, M.A.: Does disrupted-in-schizophrenia (DISC1) generate fusion transcripts? Molecular Psychiatry, 13:361-363, 2008.

Kumari, V., Antonova, E., and Geyer, M.A.: Prepulse inhibition and “Psychosis-Proneness” in healthy individuals: An fMRI study. European Psychiatry, 23:274-280, 2008.

Doherty, J.M., Masten, V.L., Powell, S.B., Ralph, R.J., Low, M.J., and Geyer, M.A.: Contributions of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptor subtypes to the disruptive effects of cocaine on prepulse inhibition in mice Neuropsychopharmacology, 33:2648-2656, 2008. doi: 10.1038/sj.npp.1301657

Kumari, V., Fannon, D., Geyer, M.A., Premkumar, P., Antonova, E., Simmons, A., and Kuipers, E.: Cortical grey matter volume and sensorimotor gating in schizophrenia. Cortex, 44:1206-1214, 2008.

Le-Niculescu, H., McFarland, M.J., Ogden, C., Balaraman, Y., Patel, S., Tan, J., Rodd, Z.A., Paulus, M., Geyer, M.A., Edenberg, H.J., Glatt, S., Faraone, S.V., Nurnberger, J.I., Kuczenski, R., Tsuang, M.T., and Niculescu, A.B.: Phenomic, convergent functional genomic and biomarker studies in a stress-reactive genetic animal model of bipolar disorder and co-morbid alcoholism. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 147:134-166, 2008.

Geyer, M.A.: Developing translational animal models for symptoms of schizophrenia or bipolar mania. Neurotoxicity Research, 14:71-78, 2008. PMID: 18790726

Carter, C.S., Barch, D.M., Arnsten, A.F., Buchanan, R.W., Krystal, J.H., Cohen, J.D., Geyer, M., Green, M., Neuchterlein, K.H., Robbins, T., Silverstein, S., Smith, E., Strauss, M.E., Wykes, T., Heinssen, R. Identifying cognitive mechanisms targeted for treatment development in schizophrenia: an overview of the first meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia Initiative. Biological Psychiatry, 4:4-10, 2008.

Powell, S.B., Young, J.W., Ong, J.C., Caron, M.G., and Geyer, M.A.: The atypical antipsychotics clozapine and quetiapine attenuate prepulse inhibition deficits in dopamine transporter knockout mice. Behavioural Pharmacology, 19:562-565, 2008.

Geyer, M.A. and Vollenweider, F.X.: Serotonin research: Contributions to understanding psychoses. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 29:445-453, 2008. PMID: 19086254

Halberstadt, A.L., Buell, M.R., Masten, V.L., Risbrough, V.B., and Geyer, M.A.: Modification of the effects of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine on exploratory behavior in rats by monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Psychopharmacology, 201:55-66, 2008. DOI 10.1007/s00213-008-1247-z; PMID: 18604652

Markou, M., Chiamulera, C., Geyer, M.A., Tricklebank, M., and Steckler, T.: Removing obstacles in neuroscience drug discovery: The future path for animal models. Neuropsychopharmacology Reviews, 34:74-89, 2009. doi:10.1038/npp.2008.173. PMC2651739

Halberstadt, A.L. and Geyer, M.A.: Habituation and sensitization of acoustic startle:
Opposite influences of dopamine D1 and D2-family receptors. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 92:243–248, 2009, doi:10.1016/j.nlm.2008.05.015. PMID: 18644244; PMC2745310

Risbrough, V.B., Geyer, M.A., Hauger, R.L., Coste, S., Stenzel-Poore, M., Wurst, W., Holsboer, F.: CRF1 and CRF2 receptors required for shock sensitization but not fear-potentiated startle. Neuropsychopharmacology, 34:1494-503, 2009. doi:10.1038/npp.2008.205. PMID: 19020499

Rankin, C.H., Abrams, T., Barry, R.J., Bhatnagar, S., Clayton, D.F., Colombo, J., Coppola, G., Geyer, M.A., Glanzman, D.L., Marsland, S., McSweeney, F.K., Wilson, D.A., Wu, C-F., Thompson, R.F.: Habituation revisited: An updated and revised description of the behavioral characteristics of habituation. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 92:135-138, 2009. doi:10.1016/j.nlm.2008.09.012. PMCID2754195 PMID: 18854219

Green, M.F., Butler, P.D., Chen, Y., Geyer, M.A., Silverstein, S., Wynn, J.K., Yoon J.H., Zemon, V.: Perception measurement in clinical trials of schizophrenia: Promising paradigms from CNTRICS. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 35:163–181, 2009.

Barch, D.M., Carter, C.S., Arnsten, A., Buchanan, R.W., Cohen, J.D., Geyer, M., Green, M.F., Krystal, J.H., Nuechterlein, K., Robbins, T., Silverstein, S., Smith, E.E., Strauss, M., Wykes, T., Heinssen, R.: Selecting paradigms from cognitive neuroscience for translation into use in clinical trials: Proceedings of the third CNTRICS meeting. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 35:109–114, 2009.

Shanahan, N.A., Holick Pierz, K.A., Masten, V.L., Waeber, C., Ansorge, M., Gingrich, J.A., Geyer, M.A., Hen, R., Dulawa, S.C.: Chronic reductions in serotonin transporter function prevent 5-HT1B-induced behavioral effects in mice. Biological Psychiatry, 65:401-408, 2009. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.09.026; PMID: 19013555; PMCID2674010

Young, J.W., Light, G.A., Marston, H.M., Sharp, R., Geyer, M.A.: The 5-choice continuous performance test: Evidence for a translational test of vigilance test for mice. PLoS ONE, 4(1):e4227, 2009. PMID: 19156216; PMCID2626630

Perry, W., Minassian, A., Paulus, M.P., Young, J.W., Kincaid, M., Ferguson, E., Henry, B.L., Zhuang, X., Masten, V.L., Sharp, R.F., Geyer, M.A.: A reverse-translational study of dysfunctional exploration in psychiatric disorders: From Mice to Men. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66:1072-1080, 2009. NIHMSID98590

Halberstadt, A.L., van der Heijden, I., Ruderman, M.A., Risbrough, V.B., Gingrich, J.A., Geyer, M.A., Powell, S.B.: 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors exert opposing effects on locomotor activity in mice. Neuropsychopharmacology, 34:1958-67, 2009. doi:10.1038/npp.2009.29. PMCID2697271

Young, J.W., Powell, S.B., Risbrough, V.B., Marston, H.M., Geyer, M.A.: Using the MATRICS to guide development of a preclinical cognitive test battery for research in schizophrenia. Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 122:150–202, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2009.02.004, PMID: 19269307; PMCID2688712

Zhou, X. Tang, W., Greenwood, T.A., Guo, S., He, L., Geyer, M.A., Kelsoe, J.R.: Transcription Factor SP4 is a susceptibility gene for bipolar disorder. PLoS ONE, 4(4): e5196, pp. 1-11, 2009.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005196. PMID: 19401786; PMCID2674320

Suzuki, G., Harper, K., Hiramoto, T., Sawamura, T., Lee, M., Kang, G., Tanigaki, K., Buell, M., Geyer, M.A., Trimble, W.S., Agatsuma, S., Hiroi, N.: Sept5 deficiency exerts pleiotropic influence on affective behaviors and cognitive functions in mice. Human Molecular Genetics. 18:1652-1660, 2009. PMID: 19240081; PMCID2733818

Minassian, A., Henry, B.L., Geyer, M.A., Paulus, M.P., Young, Perry, W.: The quantitative assessment of motor activity in mania and schizophrenia. The Journal of Affective Disorders, 120:200-206, 2010. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2009.04.018; PMID: 19435640; PMCID2795051

Powell, S.B., Zhou, X., Geyer, M.A.: Prepulse inhibition and genetic mouse models of schizophrenia. Behavioural Brain Research, 204:282-94, 2009. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2009.04.021 PMID: 19397931; PMCID2735602

Marston, H.M., Young, J.W., Martin, F.D.C., Serpa, K.A., Moore, C.L., Wong, E.H.F., Gold, L., Meltzer, L.T., Azar, M.R., Geyer, M.A., Shahid, M.: Asenapine effects in animal models of psychosis and cognitive function. Psychopharmacology, 206:699-714, 2009. PMID: 19462162; PMCID2755103

Duvvuri, V., Risbrough, V.B., Kaye, W.H., and Geyer, M.A.: 5-HT1A receptor activation is necessary for 5-MeODMT-dependent potentiation of feeding inhibition. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, 93:349-353, 2009. PMCID2724836

Suzuki, G., Harper, K.M., Hiramoto, T., Funke, B., Lee, MS., Kang, G., Buell, M., Geyer, M.A., Kucherlapati, R., Morrow, B., Männistö, P.T., Agatsuma, S., Hiroi, N.: Over-expression of a human chromosome 22q11.2 segment including TXNRD2, COMT and ARVCF developmentally affects incentive learning and working memory in mice. Human Molecular Genetics, 18:3914-3925, 2009. PMCID: PMCID2748897

Henry, B.L., Minassian, A., Paulus, M.P., Geyer, M.A., Perry, W.: Heart rate variability in bipolar mania and schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatry Research, 44:168-76, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2009.07.011; PMCID2822123

Kurian, S.M., Le-Niculescu, H., Patel, S.D. Bertram, D., Davis, J., Dike, C., Yehyawi, N., Lysaker, P., Dustin, J., Caligiuri, M., Lohr, J., Lahiri, D.K., Nurnberger Jr, J.I., Faraone, S.V. Geyer, M.A., Tsuang, M.T., Schork, N.J., Salomon, D.R., and Niculescu, A.B.: Identification of blood biomarkers for psychosis using convergent functional genomics. Molecular Psychiatry, in press. doi:10.1038/mp.2009.117

Hilti, C.C., Delko, T., Orosz, A.T., Thomann, K., Ludewig, S., Geyer, M.A., Vollenweider, F.X., Feldon, J., and Cattapan-Ludewig, K.: Sustained attention and planning deficits but intact attentional set-shifting in first-episode neuroleptic-naïve schizophrenia patients. Neuropsychobiology, 61:79-86, 2010. PMID: 20016226 [PubMed - in process]

Young, J.W., Powell, S.B., Geyer, M.A., Jeste, D.V., and Risbrough, V.: The mouse attentional set-shifting task: A method for assaying successful cognitive aging? Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience, in press.

Zhou, X., Chen, Q., Schaukowitch, K., Kelsoe, J.R., and Geyer, M.A.: Insoluble DISC1-Boymaw fusion proteins generated by the DISC1 translocation. Molecular Psychiatry, in press.

Halberstadt, A.L. and Geyer, M.A.: LSD but not lisuride disrupts prepulse inhibition in rats by activating the 5-HT2A receptor. Psychopharmacology, 208:179-189, 2010. PMC2797624

Young, J.W., Goey, A.K.L., Minassian, A., Perry, W., Paulus, M.P., and Geyer, M.A.: GBR 12909 administration as a mouse model of Bipolar Disorder mania: Mimicking quantitative assessment of manic behavior. Psychopharmacology, 208:443-454, 2010. doi: 10.1007/s00213-009-1744-8; PMCID2806531

Gresack, J.E., Risbrough, V.B., Scott, C.N., Coste, S., Stenzel-Poore, M., Geyer, M.A., and Powell, S.B.: Isolation rearing induced deficits in contextual fear learning do not require CRF2 receptors. Behavioural Brain Research, 209:80-84, 2010. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2010.01.018; PMCID2832092

Young, J.W., Wallace, C.K., Geyer, M.A., and Risbrough, V.: Age-associated improvements in cross-modal prepulse inhibition in mice. Behavioral Neuroscience, 124:133-140, 2010. PMCID176463

Young, J.W. and Geyer, M.A.: Action of modafinil – increased motivation via the dopamine transporter inhibition and D1 receptors? Biological Psychiatry, in press. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.12.015

Chang, W.L., Geyer, M.A., Buell, M.R., Weber, M., Swerdlow, N.R.: The effects of pramipexole on prepulse inhibition and locomotor activity in C57BL/6J mice. Behavioural Pharmacology, 21:135-143, 2010.

BOOK CHAPTERS - Mark A. Geyer, Ph.D.

Mandell, A.J. and Geyer, M.A.: The euphorohallucinogens. In: The Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry II, edited by Freedman, Kaplan and Sadock. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 445-454, 1975.

Mandell, A.J. and Geyer, M.A.: Hallucinations: Chemical and physiological. In: Biological Foundations of Psychiatry, (eds. R.G. Grenell and S. Gabay), Raven Press, New York, pp. 729-754, 1976.

Geyer, M.A. and Mandell, A.J.: Euphorohallucinogens--Toward a behavior model. Psychopharmacology of Hallucinogens, (eds. R.C. Stillman and R.E. Willette), Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 310- 323, 1978.

Geyer, M.A.: Heterogenous functions of discrete serotonergic pathways in brain. In: New Vistas in the Biochemistry of Mental Disorders, (eds. E. Usdin and A.J. Mandell), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 233-260, 1978.

Mandell, A.J., Knapp, S. and Geyer, M.A.: Lithium decreases and cocaine increases the bilateral assymetry of serotonin in mesostriatal and mesolimbic systems associated with changes in the kinetic properties of tryptophan hydroxylase. In: Catecholamines: Basic and Clinical Frontiers, (ed. E. Usdin), Pergamon, New York, pp. 663-666, 1979.

Geyer, M.A. and Mandell, A.J.: Similar effects of indoleamine and phenylethylamine hallucinogens on dorsal and median raphe neurons. In: Catecholamines: Basic and Clinical Frontiers, (ed. E. Usdin), Pergamon, New York, pp. 1304-1306, 1979.

Mandell, A.J. and Geyer, M.A.: The Euphorohallucinogens--A study in hemispheric relating. In: The Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry III, (eds. Freedman, Kaplan and Sadock), Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 586-599, 1980.

Segal, D.S., Geyer, M.A. and Schuckit, M.A.: Stimulant-induced psychosis: An evaluation of animal models. In: Essays in Neurochemistry and Neuropharmacology, Vol. 5 (eds. M.B.H. Youdim, W. Lovenberg, D.F. Sharman and J.R. Lagnado), John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 95-130, 1981.

Davis, M., Kehne, J.H., Commissaris, R.L. and Geyer, M.A.: Effects of hallucinogens on unconditioned behaviors. In: Hallucinogens: Neurochemical, Behavioral and Clinical Perspectives, (ed. B.L. Jacobs), Raven Press, New York, pp. 35-75, 1984.

Segal, D.S. and Geyer, M.A.: Animal models of psychopathology. In: Psychobiological Foundations of Clinical Psychiatry, (eds. L.L. Judd and P.M. Groves), J.B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, Chapter 45, pp. 1-14, 1985.

Swerdlow, N.R., Koob, G.F., Geyer, M.A., Mansbach, R. and Braff, D.L.: A cross-species model of psychosis: Mesolimbic dopamine hyperactivity in rats mimics abnormal acoustic startle response in schizophrenics. In: Animal Models of Psychiatric Disorders, Vol. 2, (ed. P. Soubrie), Karger Press: Basel, pp. 1-18, 1988.

Braff, D.L. and Geyer, M.A.: Sensorimotor gating and the neurobiology of schizophrenia: Human and animal model studies. In: Schizophrenia: Scientific Progress, (eds. S.C. Schulz & C.A. Tamminga), Oxford University Press, Chapter 14, pp. 124-136, 1989.

Gold, L.H., Geyer, M.A. and Koob G.F.: Neurochemical mechanisms involved in behavioral effects of amphetamines and related designer drugs. In: NIDA Research Monograph Series (ed. K. Asghar), 94:101-126, 1989.

Geyer, M.A.: Serotonin-2 antagonists increase tactile startle habituation in an animal model of a habituation deficit in schizophrenia. In: Behavioural Pharmacology of 5-HT, (eds. T. Archer, P. Bevan, & A. Cools), Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New York, pp. 243-246, 1989.

Geyer, M.A.: Approaches to the characterization of drug effects on locomotor activity in rodents. In: Testing and Evaluation of Drugs of Abuse, (eds. M.W. Adler & A. Cowan), Wiley-Liss, Inc., New York, pp 81-99, 1990.

Geyer, M.A. and Paulus, M.P.: Multivariate and nonlinear approaches to characterizing drug effects on the locomotor and investigatory behavior of rats. In: Neurobiological Approaches to Brain- Behavior Interaction, NIDA Research Monograph Series, 124:203- 235, 1992.

Callaway, C.W., Nichols, D.E., Paulus, M.P. and Geyer, M.A.: Serotonin release is responsible for the locomotor hyperactivity in rats induced by derivatives of amphetamine related to MDMA. In: Serotonin: Molecular Biology, Receptors and Functional Effects, (eds. J.R. Fozard & P.R. Saxena), Birkhauser, Basel, 491-505, 1991.

Geyer, M.A. and Segal, D.S.: Behavioral Psychopharmacology. In: Psychobiological Foundations of Clinical Psychiatry, (eds. L.L. Judd & P.M. Groves), J.B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, Chapter 45, 1-15, 1991.

Geyer, M.A. and Krebs, K.M.: Serotonin receptor involvement in an animal model of the acute effects of hallucinogens. In: Hallucinogens: An Update, NIDA Research Monograph Series, (eds. G.C. Lin & R.A. Glennon), 146:124-156, 1994.

Swerdlow, N.R., Braff, D.L., Caine, S.B. and Geyer, M.A.: Limbic cortico-striato-pallido-pontine substrates of sensorimotor gating in animal models and psychiatric disorders. In: The Mesolimbic Motor Circuit and its Role in Neuropsychiatric Disorders, (ed. P. Kalivas), CRC Press: New York, pp. 311-328, 1993.

Geyer, M.A. and Callaway, C.W. Behavioral pharmacology of ringsubstituted amphetamine analogs. In: Amphetamine and its Analogs: Neuropsychopharmacology Toxicology and Abuse. (eds. A.K. Cho & D.S. Segal), Academic Press, New York, pp. 177-208, 1994.

Geyer, M.A. and Markou, A.: Animal models of psychiatric disorders. Psychopharmacology: Fourth Generation of Progress, (eds. F.E. Bloom & D. Kupfer), Raven Press: New York, pp. 787-798, 1995.

Dulawa, S.C., Hen, R., Scearce-Levie, K., and Geyer, M.A.: Serotonin-1B receptor modulation of startle reactivity, habituation, and prepulse inhibition in wild-type and serotonin-1B knockout mice. Psychopharmacology, in press.

Geyer, M.A. and Paulus, M.P.: Multivariate analyses of locomotor and investigatory behavior in rodents. In: Measuring Movement and Locomotion: From Invertebrates to Humans, (eds. K-P. Ossenkopp, M. Kavaliers, and P.R. Sanberg) R.G. Landes Co., pp. 253-271, 1996.

Paulus, M.P. and Geyer, M.A.: Assessing the organization of motor behavior: New approaches based on the behavior of complex physical systems. In: Measuring Movement and Locomotion: From Invertebrates to Humans, (eds. K-P. Ossenkopp, M. Kavaliers, and P.R. Sanberg) R.G. Landes Co., pp. 273-295, 1996.

Swerdlow, N.R., Braff, D.L., Bakshi, V.P., and Geyer, M.A.: An animal model of sensorimotor gating deficits in schizophrenia predicts antipsychotic drug action. In: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, (ed. J.G. Csernansky), Springer, Inc., New York, pp.289-312, 1996.

Geyer, M.A. and Swerdlow, N.R.: Measurement of the startle response, prepulse inhibition, and habituation. In: Current Protocols in Neuroscience, Chapter 8, (J.N. Crawley and P. Skolnick, eds) John Wiley & Sons, New York, 8.7.1-8.7.15, 1998.

Geyer, M.A., Braff, D.L., and Swerdlow, N.R.: Startle-response measures of information processing in animals: Relevance to schizophrenia. In: Animal Models of Human Emotion and Cognition, (M. Haug and R.E. Whalen, eds) APA Books, Washington D.C., Chapter 8, pp. 103-116, 1999.

Geyer, M.A. and Swerdlow, N.R.: Multiple transmitters modulate prepulse inhibition of startle: Relevance to schizophrenia. In: Interactive Monoaminergic Disorders, (Palomo T, Beninger RJ, Archer T, eds) Fundacion Cerebro y Mente, Editorial Sintesis, S.A., Madrid, Chapter 20, pp 343-354, 1999.

Geyer, M.A.: Prepulse inhibition as a cross-species model of sensorimotor gating deficits in schizophrenia. Contemporary issues in modeling psychopathology, (eds. M.S. Myslobodsky & I. Weiner),. Kluwer Academic, Boston, pp. 103-112, 2000.

Geyer, M.A. and Swerdlow, N.R.: Olanzapine in behavioral models of glutamatergic function. In: Olanzapine (Zyprexa) – A Novel Antipsychotic, (Tran, P., Bymaster, F.P., Tye, N., Herrera, J.M., Breier, A., and Tollefson, G.D. eds), Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Chapter 9, pp 93-103, 2000.

Geyer, M.A. and Markou, A.: The role of preclinical models in the development of psychotropic drugs. In: Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress, (eds. K.L. Davis, D. Charney, J.T. Coyle, & C. Nemeroff), Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Chapter 33, pp 445-455, 2002.

Geyer, M.A. and Moghaddam, B.: Animal models relevant to schizophrenia disorders. In: Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress, (eds. K.L. Davis, D. Charney, J.T. Coyle, & C. Nemeroff), Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Chapter 50, pp 689-701, 2002.

Geyer, M.A. and Dulawa, S.C.: Assessment of murine startle reactivity, prepulse inhibition, and habituation. In: Current Protocols in Neuroscience, (J.N. Crawley and P. Skolnick, eds) John Wiley & Sons, New York, 8.17.1-8.17.15, 2003.

Hilti, C.C., Cattapan-Ludewig, K., and Geyer, M.A.: Prepulse inhibition – A paradigm to assess gating functions in schizophrenia patients. In: Schizophrenic Psychology: New Research, (ed. D.P. French), Nova Science Publishers, Inc., Chapter 10, pp. 211-238, 2006.

Geyer, M.A.: The family of sensorimotor gating disorders: Comorbidities or diagnostic overlaps? In: Implications of Comorbidity for Etiology and Treatment of Neuropsychiatric Disorders, (Palomo T, Beninger RJ, Kostrzewa RM, Archer T, eds) Fundacion Cerebro y Mente, Editorial Sintesis, S.A., Madrid, pp 591-608, 2008.

Geyer, M.A., Nichols, D.E., and Vollenweider, F.X.: Serotonin-related psychedelic drugs. In: Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, (ed. Squire, L.), Oxford: Academic Press, volume 8, pp. 741-748, 2009.

Powell, S.B. and Geyer, M.A.: Overview of animal models of schizophrenia. In: Current Protocols in Neuroscience, J.N. Crawley and P. Skolnick, eds) John Wiley & Sons, New York, Chapter 9:Unit 9.24, 2007.

Risbrough, V.B., Geyer, M.A.: Preclinical approaches to understanding anxiety disorders. In: Oxford Handbook of Anxiety and Related Disorders. (Antony M.M., Stein M.B., eds) Oxford University Press, New York, in press.

Geyer, M.A.: Mouse startle tests relevant to schizophrenia. In: What’s Wrong with My Mouse? Strategies for Rodent Behavior Phenotyping. (J.N. Crawley, ed) Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA, pp. 81-90, 2007.

Jones, D.N.C., Gartlon J.E., Minassian A., Perry, W., and Geyer, M.A.: Developing New Drugs for Schizophrenia: From Animals to the Clinic. In: Animal and Translational Models for CNS Drug Discovery: Psychiatric Disorders. (McArthur, R., Borsini, F., eds) Elsevier, Inc., New York, pp. 199-262, 2008.

Halberstadt, A.L., Geyer, M.A.: Hallucinogens. In: Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience. (G. Koob, R. M. Thompson, M. Le Moal, Eds.), Elsevier, London, in press.

Quednow, B.B., Geyer, M.A., Halberstadt, A.L.: Serotonin and schizophrenia. In: Handbook of the Behavioral Neurobiology of Serotonin. (C.P. Muller, B. Jacobs, Eds.), Elsevier, London, Chapter 4.6, in press.

Young, J.W., & Geyer, MA.: Animal Models of Bipolar Disorder. In: Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience. (G. Koob, R. M. Thompson, M. Le Moal, eds.), Elsevier, London, in press.

Geyer, MA.: Habituation. In: Encyclopedia of Psychopharmacology. (Ian P. Stolerman, ed.), Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, DOI 10.1007/978-3-540-68706-1, 2010 in press.

Geyer, MA.: Prepulse Inhibition. In: Encyclopedia of Psychopharmacology. (Ian P. Stolerman, ed.), Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, DOI 10.1007/978-3-540-68706-1, 2010 in press.